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Version 1.1 – Updated August 2021

Writing programs

Overview

  • Influence: Writing programs
  • Domain: Curricula
  • Sub-Domain: Reading, writing and the arts
  • Potential to Accelerate Student Achievement: Potential to accelerate
  • Influence Definition: Programs to enhance students’ writing prophecies.

Evidence

  • Number of meta-analyses: 17
  • Number of studies: 817
  • Number of students: 66,066
  • Number of effects: 1,391
  • Effect size: 0.57

Meta-Analyses

Meta-Analyses
Journal Title Author First Author's Country Article Name Year Published Variable Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Effect Size
American Journal of Education Hillocks USA What works in teaching composition: A meta-analysis of experimental treatment studies 1984 Teaching writing 60 11,705 73 0.28
Unpublished Thesis Atkinson USA A Meta-Analysis of Recent Research in the Teaching of Writing: Workshops, Computer Applications, and Inquiry 1993 Writing projects 20 0 55 0.40
The Elementary School Journal Gersten & Baker USA Teaching expressive writing to students with learning disabilities: A meta-analysis 2001 Expressive writing 13 0 13 0.81
Review of Educational Research Bangert-Drowns, Hurley & Wilkinson USA The effects of school-based writing-to-learn interventions on academic achievement: A meta-analysis 2004 School-based writing to learn interventions 46 5,416 46 0.26
Journal of Educational Psychology Graham & Perin USA A meta-analysis of writing instruction for adolescent students 2007 Writing programs 123 14,068 154 0.43
Educational Psychology Review Santangelo & Graham USA A comprehensive meta-analysis of handwriting instruction 2016 Teaching handwriting on writing 25 1,811 25 0.59
Review of Educational Research Kent & Wanzek USA The relationship between component skills and writing quality and production across developmental levels: A meta-analysis of the last 25 years 2016 Writing programs 38 0 346 0.40
Exceptional Children Gillespie & Graham USA A meta-analysis of writing interventions for students with learning disabilities 2014 Writing programs on LD 43 2,139 43 0.74
Review of Educational Research Grahan, Liu, Bartlett, Ng, Harris, Barkel, Kavanaugh, & Talukdar USA Reading for writing: A meta-analysis of the impact of reading interventions on writing 2018 Writing & reading taught together 52 5,018 52 0.57
Reading Research Quarterly Graham, Liu, Aitken, Bartlett, Harris, & Holzapfel USA Effectiveness of Literacy Programs Balancing Reading and Writing Instruction: A Meta-Analysis 2017 Balance reading & writing programs on writing 37 0 37 0.37
The Journal of Educational Research Graham & Sandmel USA The process writing approach: A meta-analysis 2011 Process writing 29 8,150 29 0.34
Journal of Educational Psychology Graham, McKeown, Kiuhara & Harris USA A meta-analysis of writing instruction for students in the elementary grades 2012 Teaching writing 115 0 184 0.59
Reading and Writing Morphy & Graham USA Word processing programs and weaker writers/readers: A meta-analysis of research findings 2012 Word processing programs on writers/readers 27 0 77 0.52
Book Graham, Harris, & McKeown USA The writing of students with LD and a meta-analysis of SRSD writing intervention studies: Redux 2013 SRSD program 23 0 61 1.58
Journal of writing research Koster, Tribushinina, de Jong, & van den Bergh Netherlands Teaching children to write: A meta-analysis of writing intervention research 2015 Writing interventions 32 9,655 53 0.72
Book Santangelo, Harris, & Graham USA Self-Regulation and Writing: An Overview and Meta-Analysis 2015 Self-regulation processes on writing 78 8,104 87 0.76
Review of Educational Research Graham, Kiuhara, & MacKay USA The Effects of Writing on Learning in Science, Social Studies, and Mathematics: A Meta-Analysis 2020 Writing on science, social studies, math 56 0 56 0.30
TOTAL/AVERAGE 817 66,066 1,391 0.57

Confidence

The Confidence is the average of these four measures, each divided into five approximately equal groups and assigned a value from 1 to 5 based on the following criteria:

  • Number of Meta-analyses
    • 1 = 1
    • 2 = 2–3
    • 3 = 4–6
    • 4 = 7–9
    • 5 = 10+
  • Number of Studies
    • 1 = 1–10
    • 2 = 11–50
    • 3 = 51–200
    • 4 = 201–400
    • 5 = 400+
  • Number of Students
    • 1 = 1–2,500
    • 2 = 2,501–10,000
    • 3 = 10,000–20,000
    • 4 = 20,000–100,000
    • 5 = 100,001+
  • Number of Effects
    • 1 = 1–100
    • 2 = 101–300
    • 3 = 301–600
    • 4 = 601–1,200
    • 5 = 1,200+
Confidences
Number of Meta-Analyses Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Overall Confidence
Confidence Factor 5 5 4 5 5
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