Worked examples
Overview
 Influence: Worked examples
 Domain: Teaching Strategies
 SubDomain: Success criteria
 Potential to Accelerate Student Achievement: Likely to have positive impact
 Influence Definition: A worked example is a problem statement with stepbystep guidelines for finding the solution. Based on the assumption that human beings have limited working memory, worked examples enable students to focus on discrete problemsolving tasks, rather than attempting to hold each of the steps in their working memory while solving a complex problem. In a “faded solutions” variant of the worked example, subsequent problem statements have fewer and fewer instructions until the student is able to complete the complex problemsolving task without the assistance of stepbystep guidelines.
Evidence
 Number of metaanalyses: 2
 Number of studies: 83
 Number of students: 3,324
 Number of effects: 179
 Effect size: 0.37
MetaAnalyses
Journal Title  Author  First Author's Country  Article Name  Year Published  Variable  Number of Studies  Number of Students  Number of Effects  Effect Size 

Unpublished Thesis  Crissman  USA  The Design and Utilization of Effective Worked Examples: A MetaAnalysis  2006  Worked examples on achievement  62  3,324  151  0.57 
Educational Psychology Review  Wittwer & Renkl  Germany  How effective are instructional explanations in examplebased learning? A metaanalytic review  2010  Worked examples on achievement  21  0  28  0.16 
TOTAL/AVERAGE  83  3,324  179  0.37 
Confidence
The Confidence is the average of these four measures, each divided into five approximately equal groups and assigned a value from 1 to 5 based on the following criteria:

Number of Metaanalyses
 1 = 1
 2 = 2–3
 3 = 4–6
 4 = 7–9
 5 = 10+

Number of Studies
 1 = 1–10
 2 = 11–50
 3 = 51–200
 4 = 201–400
 5 = 400+

Number of Students
 1 = 1–2,500
 2 = 2,501–10,000
 3 = 10,000–20,000
 4 = 20,000–100,000
 5 = 100,001+

Number of Effects
 1 = 1–100
 2 = 101–300
 3 = 301–600
 4 = 601–1,200
 5 = 1,200+
Number of MetaAnalyses  Number of Studies  Number of Students  Number of Effects  Overall Confidence  

Confidence Factor  2  3  2  2  2 