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Version 1.1 – Updated August 2021

Underlining and highlighting

Overview

  • Influence: Underlining and highlighting
  • Domain: Student Learning Strategies
  • Sub-Domain: Learning strategies
  • Potential to Accelerate Student Achievement: Potential to accelerate
  • Influence Definition: This involves underlining or highlighting the main ideas, or how ideas are related, and aims to help the reader with recall and seeing the links between parts of the text.

Evidence

  • Number of meta-analyses: 1
  • Number of studies: 56
  • Number of students: 2,070
  • Number of effects: 56
  • Effect size: 0.44

Meta-Analyses

Meta-Analyses
Journal Title Author First Author's Country Article Name Year Published Variable Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Effect Size
Science of Learning Donoghue & Hattie Australia Learning strategies: A synthesis and conceptual model 2018 Underlining 56 2,070 56 0.44
TOTAL/AVERAGE 56 2,070 56 0.44

Confidence

The Confidence is the average of these four measures, each divided into five approximately equal groups and assigned a value from 1 to 5 based on the following criteria:

  • Number of Meta-analyses
    • 1 = 1
    • 2 = 2–3
    • 3 = 4–6
    • 4 = 7–9
    • 5 = 10+
  • Number of Studies
    • 1 = 1–10
    • 2 = 11–50
    • 3 = 51–200
    • 4 = 201–400
    • 5 = 400+
  • Number of Students
    • 1 = 1–2,500
    • 2 = 2,501–10,000
    • 3 = 10,000–20,000
    • 4 = 20,000–100,000
    • 5 = 100,001+
  • Number of Effects
    • 1 = 1–100
    • 2 = 101–300
    • 3 = 301–600
    • 4 = 601–1,200
    • 5 = 1,200+
Confidences
Number of Meta-Analyses Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Overall Confidence
Confidence Factor 1 3 1 1 2
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