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Version 1.1 – Updated August 2021

Time-on-task

Overview

  • Influence: Time-on-task
  • Domain: Student Learning Strategies
  • Sub-Domain: Learning strategies
  • Potential to Accelerate Student Achievement: Potential to accelerate
  • Influence Definition: The engaged, elapsed, allocated, or total time spent on a task. It could also relate to number of days on a lesson or attendance at those lessons.

Evidence

  • Number of meta-analyses: 12
  • Number of studies: 375
  • Number of students: 47,253
  • Number of effects: 522
  • Effect size: 0.42

Meta-Analyses

Meta-Analyses
Journal Title Author First Author's Country Article Name Year Published Variable Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Effect Size
Book Bloom USA Human Characteristics and School Learning 1976 Time on task 11 0 28 0.75
Journal of Educational Research Fredrick USA Learning as a function of time 1980 Time on task 35 0 35 0.34
Unpublished Thesis Catts The integration of research findings: a review of meta-analysis methodology and an application to research on the effects of knowledge objectives 1992 Time on task 18 0 37 0.19
Unpublished Report: Starpath Project, The University of Auckland Shulruf, Keuskamp & Timperley Course taking or subject choice? 2006 Taking more coursework 36 0 36 0.24
Mid-Continent Research for Education and Learning Marzano, Gaddy, & Dean What Works in Classroom Instruction 2000 Time on task 15 0 15 0.39
Australian Journal of Education Purdie & Hattie The Relationship between Study Skills and Learning Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis 1999 Time on task 36 0 36 0.24
Regional Educational Laboratory Appalachia Kidron & Lindsay USA The Effects of Increased Learning Time on Student Academic and Nonacademic Outcomes: Findings from a Meta-Analytic Review 2014 Increased learning time 30 0 18 0.05
Effectiveness of Time Investments in Education Scheerens & Hendriks State of the art of time effectiveness. 2014 Time on task 30 0 111 0.34
Enschede: University of Twente Hendrik, Luyten, Scheerens & Sleegers Productive time in education. A Review of the Effectiveness of Teaching Time at School, Homework and Extended Time Outside School Hours 2014 Learning time in school 12 0 16 0.09
Advances in Health Sciences Education, Cook, Levinson & Garside USA Time and Learning Efficiency in Internet-Based Learning: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis 2010 Time on task 13 0 14 1.25
Review of Educational Research Crede, Roch & Kieszczynka USA Class Attendance in College: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Relationship of Class Attendance with Grades and Student Characteristics 2010 Class attendance 90 28,034 99 0.95
Conference Huang Taiwan The European Conference on Education 2015 2015 Study time 49 19,219 77 0.24
TOTAL/AVERAGE 375 47,253 522 0.42

Confidence

The Confidence is the average of these four measures, each divided into five approximately equal groups and assigned a value from 1 to 5 based on the following criteria:

  • Number of Meta-analyses
    • 1 = 1
    • 2 = 2–3
    • 3 = 4–6
    • 4 = 7–9
    • 5 = 10+
  • Number of Studies
    • 1 = 1–10
    • 2 = 11–50
    • 3 = 51–200
    • 4 = 201–400
    • 5 = 400+
  • Number of Students
    • 1 = 1–2,500
    • 2 = 2,501–10,000
    • 3 = 10,000–20,000
    • 4 = 20,000–100,000
    • 5 = 100,001+
  • Number of Effects
    • 1 = 1–100
    • 2 = 101–300
    • 3 = 301–600
    • 4 = 601–1,200
    • 5 = 1,200+
Confidences
Number of Meta-Analyses Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Overall Confidence
Confidence Factor 5 4 4 3 4
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