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Version 1.2 – Updated June 2023

Teachers not labeling students


  • Influence: Teachers not labeling students
  • Domain: Teacher
  • Sub-Domain: Teacher attributes
  • Potential to Accelerate Student Achievement: Potential to considerably accelerate
  • Influence Definition: Consider two students of the same personality, behavior, or aptitude; label one (e.g., Asperger's, naughty, struggling) and not the others. This research investigates the effects of these labels. Labeling can lead to effective intervention and/or could lead to discrimination or exclusion.


  • Number of meta-analyses: 1
  • Number of studies: 79
  • Number of students: 0
  • Number of effects: 79
  • Weighted mean effect size: 0.61
  • Robustness index: 2


Journal Title Author First Author's Country Article Name Year Published Variable Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Effect Size
Book Fuchs, Fuchs, Mathes, Lipsey, & Roberts USA Is "Learning Disabilities" Just a Fancy Term for Low Achievement? A Meta-Analysis of Reading Differences Between Low Achievers with and without the Label 2002 Low achieving non-disabled students vs. learning disabled in reading 79 0 79 0.61
TOTAL/AVERAGE 79 0 79 0.61
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