Skip to Content
Version 1.2 – Updated June 2023

Teacher estimates of achievement


  • Influence: Teacher estimates of achievement
  • Domain: Teacher
  • Sub-Domain: Teacher attributes
  • Potential to Accelerate Student Achievement: Potential to considerably accelerate
  • Influence Definition: The estimates of student achievement made by teachers. These teacher judgments: can help set expectations; be used to benchmark past understanding; are involved in setting the next challenges, identify those who may have early signs of difficulties; inform placement and intervention choices; and influence instructional choices. These judgments come from questioning, observing, written work presentations, how the student reacts to increased challenge, and assignments and tests.


  • Number of meta-analyses: 4
  • Number of studies: 151
  • Number of students: 38,878
  • Number of effects: 224
  • Weighted mean effect size: 1.29
  • Robustness index: 4


Journal Title Author First Author's Country Article Name Year Published Variable Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Effect Size
Journal of Educational Psychology Sudkamp, Kaiser & Moller Germany Accuracy of teachers' judgments of students' academic achievement: A meta-analysis 2012 Teacher judgement of students' achievement 75 38,878 75 1.62
Review of Educational Research Hoge & Coladarci USA Teacher-based judgments of academic achievement: A review of literature 1989 Teacher judgement of students' achievement 16 0 16 1.76
Thinking Skills and Creativity Gralewski & Karwowski Poland Are teachers' ratings of students' creativity related to students' divergent thinking? A meta-analysis.  2019 Teacher judgement of creativity 27 0 27 0.47
Educational Research Review Machts, Kaiser, Schmidt, & Moller Germany Accuracy of teachers' judgments of students' cognitive abilities: A meta-analysis 2016 Teacher judgements of cognitive abilities 33 0 106 1.00
TOTAL/AVERAGE 151 38,878 224 1.21
Back to top