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Version 1.1 – Updated August 2021

Sugar

Overview

  • Influence: Sugar
  • Domain: Student
  • Sub-Domain: Physical influences
  • Potential to Accelerate Student Achievement: Likely to have a negative impact
  • Influence Definition: Studies have shown that sugar consumption is linked to dental health problems, weight gain, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Moreover, some parents and health advocates have challenged USDA school breakfast guidelines, which they suggest allow higher than appropriate levels of sugar consumption in U.S. public schools. A study of the 2005 ban on vending machines in French schools revealed that students consumed ten fewer grams of sugar per morning of school attendance, although this reduction was slightly less than hoped.

Evidence

  • Number of meta-analyses: 1
  • Number of studies: 23
  • Number of students: 0
  • Number of effects: 19
  • Effect size: -0.16

Meta-Analyses

Meta-Analyses
Journal Title Author First Author's Country Article Name Year Published Variable Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Effect Size
JAMA Wolraich, Wilson, & White USA The effect of sugar on behavior or cognition in children: a meta-analysis 1995 Sugar on cognition 23 0 19 -0.16
TOTAL/AVERAGE 23 0 19 -0.16

Confidence

The Confidence is the average of these four measures, each divided into five approximately equal groups and assigned a value from 1 to 5 based on the following criteria:

  • Number of Meta-analyses
    • 1 = 1
    • 2 = 2–3
    • 3 = 4–6
    • 4 = 7–9
    • 5 = 10+
  • Number of Studies
    • 1 = 1–10
    • 2 = 11–50
    • 3 = 51–200
    • 4 = 201–400
    • 5 = 400+
  • Number of Students
    • 1 = 1–2,500
    • 2 = 2,501–10,000
    • 3 = 10,000–20,000
    • 4 = 20,000–100,000
    • 5 = 100,001+
  • Number of Effects
    • 1 = 1–100
    • 2 = 101–300
    • 3 = 301–600
    • 4 = 601–1,200
    • 5 = 1,200+
Confidences
Number of Meta-Analyses Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Overall Confidence
Confidence Factor 1 2 1 1 1
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