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Version 1.2 – Updated June 2023

Spelling programs


  • Influence: Spelling programs
  • Domain: Curricula
  • Sub-Domain: Reading, writing and the arts
  • Potential to Accelerate Student Achievement: Potential to accelerate
  • Influence Definition: Spelling programs refer to commercial programs for teaching spelling in classrooms. Traditionally, developing spelling skills in English present a substantial challenge for many children, as spelling skills do not transfer from reading skills automatically.


  • Number of meta-analyses: 3
  • Number of studies: 163
  • Number of students: 15,826
  • Number of effects: 230
  • Weighted mean effect size: 0.53
  • Robustness index: 3


Journal Title Author First Author's Country Article Name Year Published Variable Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Effect Size
Reading and Writing Graham & Santangelo USA Does spelling instruction make students better spellers, readers, and writers? A meta-analytic review 2014 Teaching spelling 53 6,037 58 0.54
Journal of Learning Disabilities Wanzek, Vaughn, Wexler, Swanson, Edmonds, & Kim USA A synthesis of spelling and reading interventions and their effects on the spelling outcomes of students with LD 2006 Teaching spelling to LD 19 448 19 0.27
Dissertation Lin USA The effects of code-based literacy interventions on spelling achievement: A meta-analysis 2013 Code base spelling program 91 9,341 153 0.58
TOTAL/AVERAGE 163 15,826 230 0.46
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