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Version 1.2 – Updated June 2023

Self-reported grades


  • Influence: Self-reported grades
  • Domain: Student
  • Sub-Domain: Prior knowledge and background
  • Potential to Accelerate Student Achievement: Potential to considerably accelerate
  • Influence Definition: A practice by which students assess the quality of their own work or their level of mastery over a given subject domain. This practice provides the opportunity for student academic growth. The validity of such self-grading is often assessed by comparing a student's "self-reported" grade with that provided by an instructor.


  • Number of meta-analyses: 6
  • Number of studies: 218
  • Number of students: 23,168
  • Number of effects: 427
  • Weighted mean effect size: 0.96
  • Robustness index: 3


Journal Title Author First Author's Country Article Name Year Published Variable Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Effect Size
Journal of Applied Psychology Mabe & West USA Validity of self-evaluation of ability: A review and meta-analysis 1982 Self-evaluation of achievement 35 13,565 35 0.93
Evaluation in Higher Education Yan, Wang, Boud, & Lao Hong Kong The effect of self-assessment on academic performance and the role of explicitness: a meta-analysis 2021 Self-assessment 26 0 26 0.46
Review of Educational Research Falchikov & Boud UK Student self assessment in higher education: a meta-analysis 1989 Self-assessment in college 57 5,332 96 0.47
Language Testing Ross Japan Self-Assessment in Second Language Testing: A Meta-Analysis and Analysis of Experiential Factors 1998 Self-assessment in second language 11 0 60 1.63
Review of Educational Research Falchikov & Goldfinch UK Student peer assessment in higher education: A meta-analysis comparing peer and teacher marks 2000 Self-assessment in college 48 4,271 56 1.91
Psychological Bulletin Freund & Kasten Germany How smart do you think you are? A meta-analysis on the validity of self-estimates of cognitive ability 2012 Self-estimates of ability 41 0 154 0.70
TOTAL/AVERAGE 218 23,168 427 1.02
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