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Version 1.2 – Updated June 2023

Self-judgement and reflection


  • Influence: Self-judgement and reflection
  • Domain: Student Learning Strategies
  • Sub-Domain: Meta-cognitive/self-regulated learning
  • Potential to Accelerate Student Achievement: Potential to considerably accelerate
  • Influence Definition: Self-judgement is a critical component of independent, self- directed learning, and yet students can often over- or underestimate their own capabilities. Educational researchers have long advocated that teachers attempt to cultivate in students the ability to dispassionately apply established standards to their own work. Such an ability has gone by several names in academic scholarship: "evaluative knowledge," "evaluative expertise," "sustainable assessment," "informed judgement," or "self-judgement." Yet, throughout this scholarship, researchers have pressed the importance of a student's ability to reflect on his or her work, discern its relationship to established standards, and make self-judgements.


  • Number of meta-analyses: 3
  • Number of studies: 99
  • Number of students: 2,010
  • Number of effects: 99
  • Weighted mean effect size: 0.81
  • Robustness index: 2


Journal Title Author First Author's Country Article Name Year Published Variable Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Effect Size
Educational Research Review Donker, de Boer, Kostons, van Ewijk, & Van der Werf Netherlands Effectiveness of learning strategy instruction on academic performance: A meta-analysis 2014 Evaluation & reflection 54 0 54 0.75
Journal on Efficiency and Responsibility in Education and Science Chamdani, Yusuf, Salimi, & Fajari Indonesia Meta-analysis study: The relationship between reflective thinking and learning achievement. 2022 Reflective thinking 22 0 22 1.24
Reflective Practice Guo USA How should reflection be supported in higher education?—A meta-analysis of reflection interventions 2022 Critical reflection 23 2,010 23 0.56
TOTAL/AVERAGE 99 2,010 99 0.85
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