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Version 1.2 – Updated June 2023

Reciprocal teaching


  • Influence: Reciprocal teaching
  • Domain: Teaching Strategies
  • Sub-Domain: Instructional strategies
  • Potential to Accelerate Student Achievement: Potential to considerably accelerate
  • Influence Definition: An instructional strategy which aims to foster better reading comprehension and to monitor students who struggle with comprehension. The strategy contains four steps: summarizing, questioning, clarifying, and predicting. It is "reciprocal" in that students and the teacher take turns leading a dialogue about the text in question, asking questions following each of the four steps. The teacher can model the four steps, then reduce her or his involvement so that students take the lead and are invited to go through the four steps after they read a segment of text.


  • Number of meta-analyses: 2
  • Number of studies: 38
  • Number of students: 677
  • Number of effects: 53
  • Weighted mean effect size: 0.74
  • Robustness index: 2


Journal Title Author First Author's Country Article Name Year Published Variable Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Effect Size
Review of Educational Research Rosenshine & Meister USA Reciprocal teaching: A review of the research 1994 Reciprocal teaching 16 0 31 0.74
Dissertation Galloway USA Improving reading comprehension through metacognitive strategy instruction: evaluating the evidence for the effectiveness of the reciprocal teaching procedure 2003 Reciprocal teaching on reading comprehension 22 677 22 0.74
TOTAL/AVERAGE 38 677 53 0.74
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