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Version 1.1 – Updated August 2021

Programmed instruction

Overview

  • Influence: Programmed instruction
  • Domain: Technology, School, and Out-of-School Strategies
  • Sub-Domain: Technology
  • Potential to Accelerate Student Achievement: Likely to have positive impact
  • Influence Definition: A mode of instruction first designed by psychologist B. F. Skinner in 1953 that provides students with immediate feedback and enables them to work at their own pace. It includes students working alone at their own speed, through a graded sequence of controlled steps. After each step, the students test their comprehension by answering an examination question or filling in a diagram.

Evidence

  • Number of meta-analyses: 8
  • Number of studies: 493
  • Number of students: 0
  • Number of effects: 391
  • Effect size: 0.23

Meta-Analyses

Meta-Analyses
Journal Title Author First Author's Country Article Name Year Published Variable Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Effect Size
Unpublished Thesis Hartley USA Meta-analysis of the effects of individually paced instruction in mathematics 1977 PI in mathematics 40 0 81 0.11
Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis Kulik, Cohen, & Ebeling USA Effectiveness of programmed instruction in higher education: A meta-analysis of findings 1980 PI with college students 57 0 57 0.24
American Psychologist Kulik, Kulik & Cohen USA Effectiveness of Programmed Instruction in Higher Education: A Meta-analysis of Findings 1980 PI in college 56 0 56 0.24
Journal of Educational Research Kulik, Schwalb, & Kulik USA Programmed Instruction in Secondary Education: A Meta-Analysis of Evaluation Finding 1982 PI in high schools 47 0 47 0.08
Journal of Research in Science Teaching Willett, Yamashita & Anderson USA A meta-analysis of instructional systems applied in science teaching 1983 PI in science 130 0 52 0.17
Educational Technology in the Japanese Schools. Educ. Technol. Res Schwalb, Schwalb, & Azuma USA Educational Technology in the Japanese Schools A Meta-Analysis of Findings 1986 PI in Japan 104 0 39 0.43
Unpublished Dissertation Mitchell A comparison of the effectiveness of innovative instructional methods utilized in lower division mathematics as measured by student achievement: a meta-analysis of findings 1987 PI in mathematics 29 0 29 0.15
Unpublished Conference Paper Boden, Archwamety, & MacFarland USA Programmed Instruction in Secondary Education: A meta-Analysis of the Impact of Class Sizes on its Effectiveness 2000 PI in high schools 30 0 30 0.40
TOTAL/AVERAGE 493 0 391 0.23

Confidence

The Confidence is the average of these four measures, each divided into five approximately equal groups and assigned a value from 1 to 5 based on the following criteria:

  • Number of Meta-analyses
    • 1 = 1
    • 2 = 2–3
    • 3 = 4–6
    • 4 = 7–9
    • 5 = 10+
  • Number of Studies
    • 1 = 1–10
    • 2 = 11–50
    • 3 = 51–200
    • 4 = 201–400
    • 5 = 400+
  • Number of Students
    • 1 = 1–2,500
    • 2 = 2,501–10,000
    • 3 = 10,000–20,000
    • 4 = 20,000–100,000
    • 5 = 100,001+
  • Number of Effects
    • 1 = 1–100
    • 2 = 101–300
    • 3 = 301–600
    • 4 = 601–1,200
    • 5 = 1,200+
Confidences
Number of Meta-Analyses Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Overall Confidence
Confidence Factor 4 5 1 3 3
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