"
Skip to Content
Version 1.1 – Updated August 2021

Procrastination

Overview

  • Influence: Procrastination
  • Domain: Student
  • Sub-Domain: Motivational approach/orientation
  • Potential to Accelerate Student Achievement: Likely to have a negative impact
  • Influence Definition: Procrastination is the act of delaying or postponing a task or set of tasks

Evidence

  • Number of meta-analyses: 2
  • Number of studies: 63
  • Number of students: 8,307
  • Number of effects: 63
  • Effect size: -0.50

Meta-Analyses

Meta-Analyses
Journal Title Author First Author's Country Article Name Year Published Variable Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Effect Size
Psychological Bulletin Steel Canada SThe nature of procrastination: a meta-analytic and theoretical review of quintessential self-regulatory failure. 2007 Procrastination on achievement 41 0 41 -0.39
International Journal of Educational Methodology Akpur Turkey The Effect of Procrastination on Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis Study. 2020 Procrastination on achievement 22 8,307 22 -0.61
TOTAL/AVERAGE 63 8,307 63 -0.50

Confidence

The Confidence is the average of these four measures, each divided into five approximately equal groups and assigned a value from 1 to 5 based on the following criteria:

  • Number of Meta-analyses
    • 1 = 1
    • 2 = 2–3
    • 3 = 4–6
    • 4 = 7–9
    • 5 = 10+
  • Number of Studies
    • 1 = 1–10
    • 2 = 11–50
    • 3 = 51–200
    • 4 = 201–400
    • 5 = 400+
  • Number of Students
    • 1 = 1–2,500
    • 2 = 2,501–10,000
    • 3 = 10,000–20,000
    • 4 = 20,000–100,000
    • 5 = 100,001+
  • Number of Effects
    • 1 = 1–100
    • 2 = 101–300
    • 3 = 301–600
    • 4 = 601–1,200
    • 5 = 1,200+
Confidences
Number of Meta-Analyses Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Overall Confidence
Confidence Factor 2 3 2 1 2
Back to top