"
Skip to Content
Version 1.1 – Updated August 2021

Principals / school leaders

Overview

  • Influence: Principals / school leaders
  • Domain: School
  • Sub-Domain: Leadership
  • Potential to Accelerate Student Achievement: Likely to have positive impact
  • Influence Definition: Principals and other school leaders face unique management challenges because schools are a public service with an array of stakeholders, including policymakers, teachers, teachers’ unions, parents, community members, and students. The focus of these studies can be management perspective (e.g., transformational, instructional, distributive), overseeing and involvement in professional learning, focus and mission, and the indirect and direct effects of leaders on students learning.

Evidence

  • Number of meta-analyses: 22
  • Number of studies: 854
  • Number of students: 1,207,970
  • Number of effects: 2,262
  • Effect size: 0.34

Meta-Analyses

Meta-Analyses
Journal Title Author First Author's Country Article Name Year Published Variable Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Effect Size
Conference paper Pantili, Williams, & Fortune USA Principal assessment: Effective or not? A meta-analytic model 1991 Assessment ratings of principals and job performance 32 10,773 32 0.41
Unpublished Thesis Gasper USA Transformational leadership: an integrative review of the literature 1992 Transformational leadership 22 0 25 0.81
International Congress on School Effectiveness and School Improvement Bosker & Witziers USA School effects: Problems, solutions, and a meta-analysis 1995 Principals on student achievement 21 0 65 0.04
Unpublished Thesis Brown USA A meta-analysis of research on the influence of leadership on student outcomes 2001 Leadership on student achievement 38 0 339 0.57
Unpublished Conference Paper Wiseman USA Principals' Instructional Management Activity and Student Achievement: A Meta-Analysis 2002 Instructional management on achievement 59 16,326 59 -0.26
Educational Administration Quarterly Witziers, Bosker, & Kruger Germany Educational Leadership and Student Achievement: The Elusive Search for an Association 2003 Principals on student achievement 61 0 377 0.02
Unpublished Conference Paper Waters, Marzano, & McNulty USA School District Leadership That Works: The Effect of Superintendent Leadership on Student Achievement 2003 District superintendents on student achievement 70 1,100,000 70 0.25
Unpublished Conference Paper Waters & Marzano USA School District Leadership that Works: The Effect of Superintendent Leadership on Student Achievement 2006 District superintendents on achievement 27 0 27 0.49
Asia Pacific Education Review Chin Taiwan Meta-analysis of transformational school leadership effects on school outcomes in Taiwan and the USA 2007 Transformational leadership 21 6,558 11 1.12
Educational Administration Quarterly Robinson, Lloyd, & Rowe New Zealand The Impact of Leadership on Student Outcomes: An Analysis of the Differential Effects of Leadership Types 2008 Principals on student achievement 14 0 14 0.39
Book Creemers & Kyriakides Netherlands The Dynamics of Educational Effectiveness 2008 School leadership 29 0 29 0.07
Asia Pacific Education Review Karadag, Bektas, Cogaltay, & Yalcin Turkey The Effect of Educational Leadership on Students' Achievement: A Meta-Analysis Study 2017 School leadership 57 28,964 57 0.72
School Leadership Effects Revisited Hendriks & Steen USA Results from School Leadership Effectiveness Studies (2005–2010) 2012 Leadership on outcomes 15 0 15 0.03
School Leadership Effects Revisited Scheerens & Steen Netherlands Earlier meta-analyses. In School Leadership Effects Revisited 2012 Instructional leadership on achievement 53 0 170 0.05
Doctoral dissertation Renlund USA Authentic Leadership in Teams: A Review and Meta-Analysis 2017 Authentic Leadership teams 23 1,269 39 0.82
Journal of Education and Literature Tsai Netherlands A preliminary meta-analysis of teacher leadership 2015 Teacher leadership on achievement 12 12,931 3 0.31
The Factors Effecting Student Achievement Karadag, Bektas, Cogaltay, & Yalcin Korea The effect of educational leadership on students' achievement 2015 Instructional leadership on achievement 57 28,964 57 0.72
Educational Administration Quarterly Sun & Leithwood USA The nature and effects of transformational school leadership a meta-analytic review of unpublished research 2012 Transformational leadership 24 2,185 20 0.18
Education Academic Monthly Wang China Thirty-year study on the relationship between US Principal's leadership and student achievement 2010 School leadership 108 0 108 0.22
Educational Research Review Shen, Wu, Reeves, Zheng, Ryan, & Anderson USA The association between teacher leadership and student achievement: A meta-analysis 2020 School leadership 21 0 22 0.39
Cypriot Journal of Educational Sciences Uysal & Sarier Turkey Meta-analysis of school leadership effects on student achievement in USA and Turkey 2019 School leadership 39 0 68 0.05
Review of Educational Research Liebowitz & Porter USA The effect of principal behaviors on student, teacher, and school outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the empirical literature 2019 Principal behaviors 51 0 655 0.11
TOTAL/AVERAGE 854 1,207,970 2,262 0.34

Confidence

The Confidence is the average of these four measures, each divided into five approximately equal groups and assigned a value from 1 to 5 based on the following criteria:

  • Number of Meta-analyses
    • 1 = 1
    • 2 = 2–3
    • 3 = 4–6
    • 4 = 7–9
    • 5 = 10+
  • Number of Studies
    • 1 = 1–10
    • 2 = 11–50
    • 3 = 51–200
    • 4 = 201–400
    • 5 = 400+
  • Number of Students
    • 1 = 1–2,500
    • 2 = 2,501–10,000
    • 3 = 10,000–20,000
    • 4 = 20,000–100,000
    • 5 = 100,001+
  • Number of Effects
    • 1 = 1–100
    • 2 = 101–300
    • 3 = 301–600
    • 4 = 601–1,200
    • 5 = 1,200+
Confidences
Number of Meta-Analyses Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Overall Confidence
Confidence Factor 5 5 5 5 5
Back to top