Skip to Content
Version 1.2 – Updated June 2023

Presence of mobile phones


  • Influence: Presence of mobile phones
  • Domain: Technology, School, and Out-of-School Strategies
  • Sub-Domain: Technology
  • Potential to Accelerate Student Achievement: Likely to have a negative impact
  • Influence Definition: The presence of mobile phones in class (typically not related to the teaching and learning).


  • Number of meta-analyses: 3
  • Number of studies: 93
  • Number of students: 296,826
  • Number of effects: 95
  • Weighted mean effect size: -0.26
  • Robustness index: 3


Journal Title Author First Author's Country Article Name Year Published Variable Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Effect Size
Computers and Education Kates, Wu, & Coryn USA The effects of mobile phone use on academic performance: A meta-analysis. 2018 Presence of mobile phones in class 39 148,883 40 -0.32
Early Childhood Research Quarterly Mallawaarachchi, Anglim, Hooley, & Horwood Australia Associations of smartphone and tablet use in early childhood with psychosocial, cognitive and sleep factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  2022 Smartphone and tablet use in ECE 10 0 10 -0.14
Computers in Human Behavior Reports Sunday, Adesope, & Maarhuis USA The effects of smartphone addiction on learning: A meta-analysis.  2021 Smartphone addiction 44 147,943 45 -0.24
TOTAL/AVERAGE 93 296,826 95 -0.23
Back to top