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Version 1.1 – Updated August 2021

Phonological awareness

Overview

  • Influence: Phonological awareness
  • Domain: Curricula
  • Sub-Domain: Reading, writing and the arts
  • Potential to Accelerate Student Achievement: Potential to considerably accelerate
  • Influence Definition: Phonological awareness involves assessing and improving phonemic awareness, such as phoneme isolation, identification, categorization, blending; segmentation, and deletion.

Evidence

  • Number of meta-analyses: 8
  • Number of studies: 269
  • Number of students: 23,585
  • Number of effects: 4,329
  • Effect size: 0.75

Meta-Analyses

Meta-Analyses
Journal Title Author First Author's Country Article Name Year Published Variable Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Effect Size
Merrill-Palmer Quarterly Wagner Causal relations between the development of phonological processing abilities and the acquisition of reading skills: a meta-analysis 1988 Phonological processing abilities 16 0 1,766 0.38
Unpublished Thesis Miller USA The effects of training in phonemic awareness: a meta-analysis 1999 Phonemic awareness programs 18 882 18 1.53
Unpublished Thesis Thomas USA The effects of phonemic awareness instruction on reading achievement of kindergarten students: a meta-analysis 2000 Phonemic awareness 8 715 10 1.02
Reading Research Quarterly Ehri, Nunes, Willows, Schuster, Yaghoub-Zadeh, & Shanahan USA Phonemic awareness instruction helps children learn to read: Evidence from the National Reading Panel's meta-analysis 2001 Phonemic awareness on reading 52 0 72 0.53
Review of Educational Research Swanson, Trainin, Necoechea & Hammill USA Rapid naming, phonological awareness, and reading: A meta-analysis of the correlation evidence 2003 Rapid naming, phonological awareness 35 3,568 2,257 0.93
Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education Mayberry, Del Giudice & Lieberman USA Reading achievement in relation to phonological coding and awareness in deaf readers: A meta-analysis 2011 Phonological coding in deaf readers 57 0 57 0.35
Zeitschrift fur Entwicklungspsychologie und Padagogissche Psychologie Fischer & Pfost Germany How Effective Are Trainings of Phonological Awareness? A Meta-Analysis of German Language Training Programs and Their Effects on he Acquisition of Reading and Spelling Skills 2015 Phonological awareness training 19 0 22 0.36
Journal of Educational Psychology Ruan, Georgiou, Song, Li, & Shu China Does writing system influence the associations between phonological awareness, morphological awareness, and reading? A meta-analysis 2018 Phonological and morphological awareness in English and Chinese 64 18,420 127 0.87
TOTAL/AVERAGE 269 23,585 4,329 0.75

Confidence

The Confidence is the average of these four measures, each divided into five approximately equal groups and assigned a value from 1 to 5 based on the following criteria:

  • Number of Meta-analyses
    • 1 = 1
    • 2 = 2–3
    • 3 = 4–6
    • 4 = 7–9
    • 5 = 10+
  • Number of Studies
    • 1 = 1–10
    • 2 = 11–50
    • 3 = 51–200
    • 4 = 201–400
    • 5 = 400+
  • Number of Students
    • 1 = 1–2,500
    • 2 = 2,501–10,000
    • 3 = 10,000–20,000
    • 4 = 20,000–100,000
    • 5 = 100,001+
  • Number of Effects
    • 1 = 1–100
    • 2 = 101–300
    • 3 = 301–600
    • 4 = 601–1,200
    • 5 = 1,200+
Confidences
Number of Meta-Analyses Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Overall Confidence
Confidence Factor 4 4 4 5 4
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