Skip to Content
Version 1.2 – Updated June 2023

Perceptual-motor programs


  • Influence: Perceptual-motor programs
  • Domain: Student Learning Strategies
  • Sub-Domain: Student-focused interventions
  • Potential to Accelerate Student Achievement: Likely to have a small positive impact
  • Influence Definition: These programs are premised on the belief that neurological deficits related to perceptual and motor skills interfere with academic learning, and therefore they engage students in a range of physical activities designed to improve perception and gross and fine motor skills.


  • Number of meta-analyses: 3
  • Number of studies: 224
  • Number of students: 13,967
  • Number of effects: 677
  • Weighted mean effect size: 0.11
  • Robustness index: 3


Journal Title Author First Author's Country Article Name Year Published Variable Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Effect Size
Journal of Learning Disabilities Kavale & Mattson USA "One Jumped Off the Balance Beam" Meta-Analysis of Perceptual-Motor Training 1983 PM programs on learning disabled 180 13,000 637 0.08
American Journal of Occupational Therapy Vargas & Camilli USA A meta-analysis of research on sensory integration treatment 1999 Sensory integration therapy 14 0 16 0.29
Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities Leong, Carter, & Stephenson Australia Meta-analysis of research on sensory integration therapy for individuals with developmental and learning disabilities 2015 Sensory integration therapy 30 967 24 0.19
TOTAL/AVERAGE 224 13,967 677 0.19
Back to top