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Version 1.1 – Updated August 2021

Parental employment

Overview

  • Influence: Parental employment
  • Domain: Home
  • Sub-Domain: Family resources
  • Potential to Accelerate Student Achievement: Likely to have a small positive impact
  • Influence Definition: Whether no, one, or both parents are employed.

Evidence

  • Number of meta-analyses: 2
  • Number of studies: 88
  • Number of students: 307,061
  • Number of effects: 1,528
  • Effect size: 0.03

Meta-Analyses

Meta-Analyses
Journal Title Author First Author's Country Article Name Year Published Variable Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Effect Size
Psychological Bulletin Goldberg, Prause, Lucas-Thompson, & Himsel USA Maternal employment and children's achievement in context: a meta-analysis of four decades of research 2008 Maternal employment on achievement 68 178,323 1,483 0.06
Psychological Bulletin Lucas-Thompson, Goldberg & Prause USA Maternal work early in the lives of children and its distal associations with achievement and behavior problems: a meta-analysis 2010 Employed vs. unemployed mothers 20 128,738 45 0.00
TOTAL/AVERAGE 88 307,061 1,528 0.03

Confidence

The Confidence is the average of these four measures, each divided into five approximately equal groups and assigned a value from 1 to 5 based on the following criteria:

  • Number of Meta-analyses
    • 1 = 1
    • 2 = 2–3
    • 3 = 4–6
    • 4 = 7–9
    • 5 = 10+
  • Number of Studies
    • 1 = 1–10
    • 2 = 11–50
    • 3 = 51–200
    • 4 = 201–400
    • 5 = 400+
  • Number of Students
    • 1 = 1–2,500
    • 2 = 2,501–10,000
    • 3 = 10,000–20,000
    • 4 = 20,000–100,000
    • 5 = 100,001+
  • Number of Effects
    • 1 = 1–100
    • 2 = 101–300
    • 3 = 301–600
    • 4 = 601–1,200
    • 5 = 1,200+
Confidences
Number of Meta-Analyses Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Overall Confidence
Confidence Factor 2 3 5 5 4
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