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Version 1.1 – Updated August 2021

Outdoor / adventure programs

Overview

  • Influence: Outdoor / adventure programs
  • Domain: Curricula
  • Sub-Domain: Other curricula programs
  • Potential to Accelerate Student Achievement: Potential to accelerate
  • Influence Definition: These organized, outdoor activity programs promote group or team interactions through shared challenges. They often involve high levels of challenge (high ropes, climbing, white water rapids), can last many days, and aim to impact confidence, cooperation, and coping strategies.

Evidence

  • Number of meta-analyses: 4
  • Number of studies: 194
  • Number of students: 26,845
  • Number of effects: 436
  • Effect size: 0.43

Meta-Analyses

Meta-Analyses
Journal Title Author First Author's Country Article Name Year Published Variable Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Effect Size
The Journal of Experiential Education Cason & Gillis USA A Meta-Analysis of Outdoor Adventure Programming with Adolescents 1994 Outdoor education on high school achievement 43 11,238 10 0.61
Review of Educational Research Hattie, Marsh, Neill, & Richards USA Effects of learning skills interventions on student learning: A meta-analysis. 1997 Outward Bound 96 12,057 30 0.46
Unpublished Thesis Laidlaw USA A meta-analysis of outdoor education programs. 2002 Outdoor education on achievement 48 3,550 389 0.49
Journal of Experiential Education Gillis & Speelman USA Are Challenge (Ropes) Courses an Effective Tool? A Meta-Analysis 2008 Ropes courses on achievement 7 0 7 0.17
TOTAL/AVERAGE 194 26,845 436 0.43

Confidence

The Confidence is the average of these four measures, each divided into five approximately equal groups and assigned a value from 1 to 5 based on the following criteria:

  • Number of Meta-analyses
    • 1 = 1
    • 2 = 2–3
    • 3 = 4–6
    • 4 = 7–9
    • 5 = 10+
  • Number of Studies
    • 1 = 1–10
    • 2 = 11–50
    • 3 = 51–200
    • 4 = 201–400
    • 5 = 400+
  • Number of Students
    • 1 = 1–2,500
    • 2 = 2,501–10,000
    • 3 = 10,000–20,000
    • 4 = 20,000–100,000
    • 5 = 100,001+
  • Number of Effects
    • 1 = 1–100
    • 2 = 101–300
    • 3 = 301–600
    • 4 = 601–1,200
    • 5 = 1,200+
Confidences
Number of Meta-Analyses Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Overall Confidence
Confidence Factor 3 3 4 3 3
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