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Version 1.1 – Updated August 2021

Online and digital tools

Overview

  • Influence: Online and digital tools
  • Domain: Technology, School, and Out-of-School Strategies
  • Sub-Domain: Technology
  • Potential to Accelerate Student Achievement: Likely to have positive impact
  • Influence Definition: These include word processing apps, slide presentation software, electronic reference materials, tablet and cellphones apps.

Evidence

  • Number of meta-analyses: 10
  • Number of studies: 436
  • Number of students: 82,136
  • Number of effects: 1,129
  • Effect size: 0.36

Meta-Analyses

Meta-Analyses
Journal Title Author First Author's Country Article Name Year Published Variable Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Effect Size
Journal of Literacy Research Moran, Ferdig, Pearson, Wardrop & Blomeyer Technology and Reading Performance in the Middle-School Grades: A Meta-Analysis with Recommendations for Policy and Practice 2008 Digital tools on learning 20 0 89 0.49
US Department of Education Means, Toyama, Murphy, Bakia, Jones USA Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practices in Online Learning: A Meta-Analysis and Review of Online Learning Studies 2009 Online learning on students 51 0 51 0.24
Journal of Educational Computing Research Zucker, Moody & McKenna USA The Effects of Electronic Books on Pre-Kindergarten-to-Grade 5 Students' Literacy and Language Outcomes: A Research Synthesis 2009 e-books on achievement 7 401 7 0.41
Journal of Educational Computing Research Schroeder, Adesope, & Gilbert USA How Effective are Pedagogical Agents for Learning? A Meta-Analytic Review 2013 Pedagogical agents on screen 43 3,088 43 0.19
Journal of Educational Computing Research Guo & Goh Singapore Affect in Embodied Pedagogical Agents: Meta-Analytic Review 2015 Pedagogical agents on screen 30 2,150 30 0.61
Asia Pacific Education Researcher Jang, Yi, & Shin Korea Examining the effectiveness of digital textbook use on students’ learning outcomes in South Korea: A meta-analysis 2016 Digital textbooks 26 0 625 0.34
American Journal of Distance Education Darabi, Liang, Suryavanshi & Yurekli Effectiveness of online discussion strategies: A meta-analysis 2013 Online discussions 72 0 72 0.23
Computer Assisted Language Learning Yun USA The effects of hypertext glosses on L2 vocabulary acquisition: A meta-analysis 2010 Hypertext glosses on achievement 10 866 10 0.31
Center for Research and Reform in Education Cheung & Slavin USA The Effectiveness of Education Technology for Enhancing Reading Achievement: A Meta-Analysis. 2011 Ed technology 85 60,721 85 0.16
Computers in Education Hillmayr, Ziernwald, Reinhold, Hofer, & Reiss Germany The potential of digital tools to enhance mathematics and science learning in secondary schools: A context specific meta-analysis. 2020 Digital tools on learning 92 14,910 117 0.65
TOTAL/AVERAGE 436 82,136 1,129 0.36

Confidence

The Confidence is the average of these four measures, each divided into five approximately equal groups and assigned a value from 1 to 5 based on the following criteria:

  • Number of Meta-analyses
    • 1 = 1
    • 2 = 2–3
    • 3 = 4–6
    • 4 = 7–9
    • 5 = 10+
  • Number of Studies
    • 1 = 1–10
    • 2 = 11–50
    • 3 = 51–200
    • 4 = 201–400
    • 5 = 400+
  • Number of Students
    • 1 = 1–2,500
    • 2 = 2,501–10,000
    • 3 = 10,000–20,000
    • 4 = 20,000–100,000
    • 5 = 100,001+
  • Number of Effects
    • 1 = 1–100
    • 2 = 101–300
    • 3 = 301–600
    • 4 = 601–1,200
    • 5 = 1,200+
Confidences
Number of Meta-Analyses Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Overall Confidence
Confidence Factor 5 5 4 4 5
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