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Version 1.1 – Updated August 2021

Mainstreaming / inclusion

Overview

  • Influence: Mainstreaming / inclusion
  • Domain: Classroom
  • Sub-Domain: Class composition effects
  • Potential to Accelerate Student Achievement: Likely to have positive impact
  • Influence Definition: Mainstreaming and inclusion involves students with special needs who are placed in a general education classroom.

Evidence

  • Number of meta-analyses: 9
  • Number of studies: 244
  • Number of students: 4,829,532
  • Number of effects: 525
  • Effect size: 0.25

Meta-Analyses

Meta-Analyses
Journal Title Author First Author's Country Article Name Year Published Variable Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Effect Size
Evaluation in Education Kavale & Carlberg USA Regular versus special class placement for exceptional children 1980 Regular vs. special class placement 50 27,000 50 0.12
The Journal of Special Education Wang & Baker USA Mainstreaming programs: design features and effects 1986 Regular vs. special class placement 11 0 115 0.33
Unpublished Thesis Baker USA Meta-Analytic Evidence for Noninclusive Educational Practices: Does Educational Research Support Current Practice for Special Needs Students? 1994 Regular vs. special class placement 13 2,532 129 0.08
Educational Leadership Baker, Wang, & Walberg USA The Effects of Inclusion on Learning 1994 Regular vs. special class placement 6 0 6 0.20
Conference Paper Dixon USA The effect of different educational placements on the multidimensional self-concepts of students with mild disabilities: Preliminary results of a meta-analysis 1997 Regular vs. special class placement 70 0 70 0.65
Research in Development Disabilities Oh-Young & Filler USA A meta-analysis of the effects of placement on academic and social skill outcome measures of students with disabilities 2015 Mainstreaming 24 0 93 0.31
Educational Research Review Szumski, Smogorzewska, & Karwowski Poland Academic achievement of students without special educational needs in inclusive classrooms: A meta-analysis 2017 Inclusion on non-special needs students 47 4,800,000 47 0.12
Unpublished Thesis Ahmad USA To include or not to include: A meta-analysis on the effect of inclusion on mathematics for children with and without special needs 2016 Integrated vs special class placement 14 0 6 0.38
Social Education Zumeta USA Theory and research in social education 2009 Regular vs. special class placement 9 0 9 0.09
TOTAL/AVERAGE 244 4,829,532 525 0.25

Confidence

The Confidence is the average of these four measures, each divided into five approximately equal groups and assigned a value from 1 to 5 based on the following criteria:

  • Number of Meta-analyses
    • 1 = 1
    • 2 = 2–3
    • 3 = 4–6
    • 4 = 7–9
    • 5 = 10+
  • Number of Studies
    • 1 = 1–10
    • 2 = 11–50
    • 3 = 51–200
    • 4 = 201–400
    • 5 = 400+
  • Number of Students
    • 1 = 1–2,500
    • 2 = 2,501–10,000
    • 3 = 10,000–20,000
    • 4 = 20,000–100,000
    • 5 = 100,001+
  • Number of Effects
    • 1 = 1–100
    • 2 = 101–300
    • 3 = 301–600
    • 4 = 601–1,200
    • 5 = 1,200+
Confidences
Number of Meta-Analyses Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Overall Confidence
Confidence Factor 4 4 5 3 4
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