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Version 1.1 – Updated August 2021

Intact, two-parent families

Overview

  • Influence: Intact, two-parent families
  • Domain: Home
  • Sub-Domain: Family structure
  • Potential to Accelerate Student Achievement: Likely to have positive impact
  • Influence Definition: Children from intact, two-parent families, usually compared to single parenthood.

Evidence

  • Number of meta-analyses: 9
  • Number of studies: 398
  • Number of students: 370,000
  • Number of effects: 444
  • Effect size: 0.22

Meta-Analyses

Meta-Analyses
Journal Title Author First Author's Country Article Name Year Published Variable Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Effect Size
Psychological Bulletin Amato & Keith USA Parental Divorce and the Well-Being of Children: A Meta-Analysis 1991 Both parents vs. divorced families 39 0 39 0.16
Unpublished thesis McKee USA The effects of parental divorce on children: Four meta-analyses 1992 Non Divorce vs. Divorce on achievement 24 0 24 0.11
Journal of GLBT Family Studies Crowl, Ahn, & Baker USA A meta-analysis of developmental outcomes for children of same-sex and heterosexual parents 2007 Same sex parents 3 0 3 0.15
Unpublished thesis; ProQuest Love-Clark USA A meta-analysis of the effects of divorce on children's adjustment 1984 Non-Divorce vs. Divorce on achievement 88 0 145 0.53
Journal of Marriage and Family Pong, Dronkers, Hampden-Thompson USA Family Policies and Children's School Achievement in Single- Versus Two-Parent Families 2003 Two parent vs. single family on math and science 22 0 22 0.13
Psychological Reports Kunz Australia Parental divorce and academic achievement of college students 1995 Both parents vs. divorced families 65 0 65 0.30
Journal of Divorce & Remarriage Reifman, Villa, Amans, Rethinam, & Telesca USA Children of divorce in the 1990s: A meta-analysis 2001 Children of intact vs. divorced parents 35 0 7 0.16
Marriage & Family Review Jeynes USA The impact of parental remarriage on children: A meta-analysis 2006 Intact vs. Remarried families on achievement 61 370,000 61 0.25
Urban Education Jeynes USA The Relationship Between Parental Involvement and Urban Secondary School Student Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis 2007 Intact vs. parental re-marriage on achievement 61 0 78 0.22
TOTAL/AVERAGE 398 370,000 444 0.22

Confidence

The Confidence is the average of these four measures, each divided into five approximately equal groups and assigned a value from 1 to 5 based on the following criteria:

  • Number of Meta-analyses
    • 1 = 1
    • 2 = 2–3
    • 3 = 4–6
    • 4 = 7–9
    • 5 = 10+
  • Number of Studies
    • 1 = 1–10
    • 2 = 11–50
    • 3 = 51–200
    • 4 = 201–400
    • 5 = 400+
  • Number of Students
    • 1 = 1–2,500
    • 2 = 2,501–10,000
    • 3 = 10,000–20,000
    • 4 = 20,000–100,000
    • 5 = 100,001+
  • Number of Effects
    • 1 = 1–100
    • 2 = 101–300
    • 3 = 301–600
    • 4 = 601–1,200
    • 5 = 1,200+
Confidences
Number of Meta-Analyses Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Overall Confidence
Confidence Factor 4 4 5 3 4
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