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Version 1.1 – Updated August 2021

Information and Computer Technology

Overview

  • Influence: Information and Computer Technology
  • Domain: Technology, School, and Out-of-School Strategies
  • Sub-Domain: Technology
  • Potential to Accelerate Student Achievement: Potential to accelerate
  • Influence Definition: The classroom use of information technology, such as computers, has been a widely studied topic. Once referred to as computer-assisted instruction, more recently the notion of Information and Computer Technology (ICT) is more common – as it is the computer processing more than the form (computers, iPad, iPhone) that is the core notion.

Evidence

  • Number of meta-analyses: 51
  • Number of studies: 3,092
  • Number of students: 143,383
  • Number of effects: 4,991
  • Effect size: 0.53

Meta-Analyses

Meta-Analyses
Journal Title Author First Author's Country Article Name Year Published Variable Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Effect Size
Unpublished Thesis Hartley USA Meta-analysis of the effects of individually paced instruction in mathematics 1977 ICT on achievement 33 0 89 0.41
Educational Communication and Technology Clark USA Evidence for confounding in computer-based instruction studies: analyzing the meta-analysis 1985 ICT in schools 42 0 42 0.09
Education Technology Res. Schwalb, Schwalb, & Azuma USA Educational Technology in the Japanese Schools: A Meta-Analysis of Findings 1986 Technology in Japan 104 0 33 0.49
Contemporary Educational Psychology Gillingham & Guthrie USA Relationships between CBI and research on teaching 1987 Computer based instruction 13 0 13 1.05
Contemporary Educational Psychology Kulik & Kulik USA Review of Recent Research Literature on Computer-Based Instruction 1987 ICT on achievement 199 0 199 0.31
Computers in the Schools Roblyer, Castine & King The Effectiveness of Computer Applications for Instruction: A review and synthesis of recent research findings 1988 ICT on achievement 85 0 85 0.26
Unpublished Thesis Cunningham USA The contribution of computer-generated instructional graphics on measured achievement gains: A meta-analysis 1988 Computer generated graphics on achievement 37 0 37 0.33
Unpublished Dissertation Lee The effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction and computer programming in elementary and secondary mathematics: A meta-analysis 1990 ICT in elementary and high 72 0 243 0.38
Computers in Human Behavior Kulik & Kulik USA Effectiveness of computer-based instruction: an updated analysis 1991 ICT on achievement 248 240 248 0.30
Educational Administration Quarterly Ryan USA Meta-Analysis of Achievement Effects of Microcomputer Applications in Elementary Schools 1991 Microcomputer applications 40 0 58 0.31
Unpublished Thesis Palmeter USA The effects of computer programming on children's higher-level cognitive processes: a review of the research on Logo 1991 ICT/Logo on higher cognitive processes 37 0 144 0.48
Journal of Educational Computing Research Liao & Bright USA Effects of Computer Programming on Cognitive Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis 1991 Computer programming on achievement 65 0 432 0.41
Journal of Research on Computing in Education Liao Yes Effects of computer-assisted instruction on cognitive outcomes: a meta-analysis 1992 ICT on achievement 31 0 207 0.48
IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science Najafi, Rezaei, Boura, & Mottagi Iran A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship between Information and Communications Technology and Academic Achievement in Iran. 2014 ICT on achievement 18 0 18 0.58
 EdMedia+ Innovate Learning Liao & Chen China Computer simulation and students' achievement in Taiwan: A meta-analysis. 2013 ICT on achievement 22 0 22 0.52
Language Learning and Technology Lin China Establishing an empirical link between computer-mediated communication (CMC) and SLA: A meta-analysis of the research 2014 Computer mediated communication 59 3,562 59 0.44
Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Lai Taiwan A Network Meta-Analysis on the Effects of Information and Communication Technology on Students’ Learning Achievement in Taiwan 2019 ICT in Taiwan 34 0 34 1.71
Language Learning & Technology Lin Taiwan Establishing an empirical link between computer-mediated communication (CMC) and SLA: A meta-analysis of the research 2014 ICT in L2 oral proficiency 25 1,712 25 0.40
Computers & Education Chauhan India A meta-analysis of the impact of technology on learning effectiveness of elementary students 2017 ICT with elementary students 122 0 212 0.55
International Journal of STEM Education Sokolowski, Li, & Willson The effects of using exploratory computerized environments in grades 1 to 8 mathematics: a meta-analysis of research 2015 Computerized environments 24 4,256 24 0.60
Journal of Educational Computing Research Chan & Leung Macau Dynamic Geometry Software Improves Mathematical Achievement: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis 2014 ICT Dynamic geometry software on math 9 587 9 1.02
Turkish Journal of Computer and Mathematics Education Dikmen & Tuncer Turkey A meta-analysis of effects of computer assisted education on students’ academic achievement: a-10-year review of achievement effect. 2018 ICT in Turkey 43 2,434 43 1.03
Procedia: Social and Behavioral Sciences Shakibaei, Khalkhali, & Andesh Iran Meta-analysis of Studies on Educational Technology in Iran 2011 ICT in Iran 12 0 12 0.35
Journal of Research on Computing in Education Khalili & Shashaani USA The effectiveness of computer applications: A meta-analysis 1994 ICT on achievement 36 0 151 0.38
Technology assessment in Education and Training Kulik USA Meta-analytic studies of findings on computer-based instruction. 1994 All education 97 0 32 0.35
Unpublished Thesis Christmann New Zealand A Meta-Analysis of the Effect of Computer-Assisted Instruction on the Academic Achievement of Students in Grades 6-12: A Comparison of Urban, Suburban, and Rural Educational Settings 1995 ICT on achievement 35 3,476 35 0.23
Journal of Educational Computing Research Fletcher-Flynn & Gravatt USA The efficacy of computer assisted instruction (CAI): a meta-analysis 1995 ICT in schools 120 0 120 0.17
Unpublished Thesis Hamilton USA A Meta-Analysis of the Comparative Research on Computer-Assisted Instruction and its Effects on Elementary and Secondary Mathematics Achievement 1995 ICT in higher education 41 0 253 0.66
Unpublished Thesis Fazal USA Effectiveness and costs of computer-based instruction in higher education and defense training: A meta-analysis 1996 ICT on achievement 48 0 48 0.35
Training and retraining: A Handbook for Business, Industry, Government, and the Military Woolf & Regian USA Knowledge-based Training Systems and the Engineering of Instruction 2000 Technology in schools 233 0 233 0.39
Training and retraining: A Handbook for Business, Industry, Government, and the Military Woolf & Regian USA Knowledge-based training systems and the engineering of instruction. 2002 ICT on achievement 177 0 177 0.33
Mid-Continent Research for Education and Learning Akiba USA Computer-Assisted Instruction 2002 ICT on achievement 21 0 21 0.37
North Central Regional Educational Laboratory Roberts USA The role of computers in school restructuring: A meta-analysis. 2002 Technology vs. traditional teaching on achievement 31 6,388 165 0.69
NCREL Waxman, Connell, & Gray USA A quantitative synthesis of recent research on the effects of teaching and learning with technology on student outcomes 2002 ICT in elementary & high school classrooms 20 4,400 138 0.39
Unpublished Thesis Chambers USA Designing and Evaluating a Computer Assisted Tutoring Programme for Young Students At-Risk for Reading Failure 2002 ICT in elementary & high school classrooms 57 64,766 125 0.51
Reading: CfBT Education Trust Chambers & Schreiber USA Effective early childhood education programmes: a best-evidence synthesis. 2003 ICT on achievement 25 0 25 0.40
Learning Point Associates Waxman, Lin, Michko Taiwan A meta-analysis of the effectiveness of teaching and learning with technology on student outcomes 2003 ICT in Taiwan 29 7,728 167 0.54
Computers & Education Liao Taiwan Computer simulation and students' achievement in Taiwan: A meta-analysis 2005 ICT on achievement 52 4,981 134 0.55
Technology Literacy Applications in Learning Environments Chang & Lim Taiwan The role of information technology in learning: A meta-analysis. 2005 Computer assisted language achievement 68 0 179 0.70
Technology Literacy Applications in Learning Environments Chang & Lim USA The role of information technology in learning: A meta-analysis 2013 ICT on achievement 31 3,414 31 0.67
Unpublished Thesis Sandy-Hanson A meta-analysis o the impact of computer technology versus traditional instruction on students in kindergarten through twelfth grade in the United States: A comparison of academic achievement, higher-order thinking skills, motivation, physical outcomes and social skills 2006 e-learning in Canada 23 9,897 23 0.28
Journal of Educational Computing Research Rosen & Salomon Turkey The differential learning achievements of constructivist technology-intensive learning environments as compared with traditional ones: a meta-analysis 2007 ICT in Turkey 32 0 32 0.46
Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice Camnalbur & Erdogan Turkey A Meta Analysis on the Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Instruction: Turkey Sample 2008 ICT in Turkey 78 5,096 78 0.95
Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching Tekbiyik & Akdeniz A meta-analytical investigation of the influence of computer assisted instruction on achievement in science, 2012 ICT in Turkey 52 0 65 1.12
 Review of Educational Research Takacs, Swart, & Bus Benefits and pitfalls of multimedia and interactive features in technology-enhanced storybooks: A meta-analysis 2016 Interactive story books 43 2,147 43 0.16
Journal of Educational Computing Research Thomas, Alexander, Jackson, & Abrami Canada The differential effects of interactive versus didactic pedagogy using computer-assisted instruction 2013 ICT in interactive vs didactic settings 40 0 55 0.18
Journal of UGC-ASC Sudhirkumar & Pinalben India Meta-Analysis of Effectiveness of Computer-Aided Instruction 2012 ICT on achievement in India 35 0 35 0.75
Journal of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Education Han, Kim, & Heo Korea A meta-analysis on the effectiveness of smart-learning 2014 Smart learning devices 104 0 104 0.89
Chinese Data base Zhou & Li China Can virtual reality technology improve learning achievement? 2016 Virtual Learning 46 0 46 0.63
Education and Science Avci, Coklar, & istanbullu Turkey The effect of three dimensional virtual-environments and augmented reality applications on the learning environment: A meta-analysis study 2019 3-D Virtual environments 20 0 20 0.25
Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology/La revue Canadienne de l’apprentissage et de la technologie Abrami, Bernard, Zhang, Borokhovski, Surkes & Wade Canada A review of e-learning in Canada: A rough sketch of the evidence, gaps and promising directions. 2006 Interventions to improve critical thinking skills 124 18,299 168 1.01
TOTAL/AVERAGE 3,092 143,383 4,991 0.53

Confidence

The Confidence is the average of these four measures, each divided into five approximately equal groups and assigned a value from 1 to 5 based on the following criteria:

  • Number of Meta-analyses
    • 1 = 1
    • 2 = 2–3
    • 3 = 4–6
    • 4 = 7–9
    • 5 = 10+
  • Number of Studies
    • 1 = 1–10
    • 2 = 11–50
    • 3 = 51–200
    • 4 = 201–400
    • 5 = 400+
  • Number of Students
    • 1 = 1–2,500
    • 2 = 2,501–10,000
    • 3 = 10,000–20,000
    • 4 = 20,000–100,000
    • 5 = 100,001+
  • Number of Effects
    • 1 = 1–100
    • 2 = 101–300
    • 3 = 301–600
    • 4 = 601–1,200
    • 5 = 1,200+
Confidences
Number of Meta-Analyses Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Overall Confidence
Confidence Factor 5 5 5 5 5
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