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Version 1.1 – Updated August 2021

Immediacy

Overview

  • Influence: Immediacy
  • Domain: Teaching Strategies
  • Sub-Domain: Instructional strategies
  • Potential to Accelerate Student Achievement: Potential to considerably accelerate
  • Influence Definition: Behaviors that communicate approachability, facilitating psychological closeness.

Evidence

  • Number of meta-analyses: 2
  • Number of studies: 97
  • Number of students: 29,911
  • Number of effects: 97
  • Effect size: 0.65

Meta-Analyses

Meta-Analyses
Journal Title Author First Author's Country Article Name Year Published Variable Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Effect Size
Communication Education Allen, Witt, & Wheeless USA The role of teacher immediacy as a motivational factor in student learning: using meta-analysis to test a causal model 2007 Immediacy on cognitive outcomes 16 5,437 16 0.16
Communication Monographs Witt, Wheeless, & Allen USA A meta-analytical review of the relationship between teacher immediacy and student learning. 2006 Immediacy of teacher feedback 81 24,474 81 1.15
TOTAL/AVERAGE 97 29,911 97 0.65

Confidence

The Confidence is the average of these four measures, each divided into five approximately equal groups and assigned a value from 1 to 5 based on the following criteria:

  • Number of Meta-analyses
    • 1 = 1
    • 2 = 2–3
    • 3 = 4–6
    • 4 = 7–9
    • 5 = 10+
  • Number of Studies
    • 1 = 1–10
    • 2 = 11–50
    • 3 = 51–200
    • 4 = 201–400
    • 5 = 400+
  • Number of Students
    • 1 = 1–2,500
    • 2 = 2,501–10,000
    • 3 = 10,000–20,000
    • 4 = 20,000–100,000
    • 5 = 100,001+
  • Number of Effects
    • 1 = 1–100
    • 2 = 101–300
    • 3 = 301–600
    • 4 = 601–1,200
    • 5 = 1,200+
Confidences
Number of Meta-Analyses Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Overall Confidence
Confidence Factor 2 3 4 1 3
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