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Version 1.1 – Updated August 2021

Growth vs. fixed mindsets

Overview

  • Influence: Growth vs. fixed mindsets
  • Domain: Student
  • Sub-Domain: Beliefs, attitudes, and dispositions
  • Potential to Accelerate Student Achievement: Likely to have a small positive impact
  • Influence Definition: Children with a growth mindset believe that they can develop their abilities through study and practice, while children with a fixed mindset believe that they have a certain amount of innate ability that cannot be altered.

Evidence

  • Number of meta-analyses: 4
  • Number of studies: 283
  • Number of students: 863,309
  • Number of effects: 523
  • Effect size: 0.15

Meta-Analyses

Meta-Analyses
Journal Title Author First Author's Country Article Name Year Published Variable Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Effect Size
Psychological Bulletin Burnette, O’Boyle, van Epps, Pollack & Finkel USA Mind-sets matter: A meta-analytic review of implicit theories and self-regulation 2013 Incremental vs. entity thinking 85 28,217 113 0.19
Psychological Science Sisk, Burgoyne, Sun, Butler, & Macnamara USA To What Extent and Under Which Circumstances Are Growth Mind-Sets Important to Academic Achievement? Two Meta-Analyses 2018 Growth mindsets 123 365,915 273 0.20
Psychological Science Sisk, Burgoyne, Sun, Butler, & Macnamara USA To What Extent and Under Which Circumstances Are Growth Mind-Sets Important to Academic Achievement? Two Meta-Analyses 2018 Growth mindsets interventions 29 57,155 43 0.08
Frontiers in Psychology Costa & Faria Portugal Implicit theories of intelligence and academic achievement: A meta-analysis 2018 Incremental vs. entity thinking 46 412,022 94 0.14
TOTAL/AVERAGE 283 863,309 523 0.15

Confidence

The Confidence is the average of these four measures, each divided into five approximately equal groups and assigned a value from 1 to 5 based on the following criteria:

  • Number of Meta-analyses
    • 1 = 1
    • 2 = 2–3
    • 3 = 4–6
    • 4 = 7–9
    • 5 = 10+
  • Number of Studies
    • 1 = 1–10
    • 2 = 11–50
    • 3 = 51–200
    • 4 = 201–400
    • 5 = 400+
  • Number of Students
    • 1 = 1–2,500
    • 2 = 2,501–10,000
    • 3 = 10,000–20,000
    • 4 = 20,000–100,000
    • 5 = 100,001+
  • Number of Effects
    • 1 = 1–100
    • 2 = 101–300
    • 3 = 301–600
    • 4 = 601–1,200
    • 5 = 1,200+
Confidences
Number of Meta-Analyses Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Overall Confidence
Confidence Factor 3 4 5 3 4
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