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Version 1.1 – Updated August 2021

Gender (male-female)

Overview

  • Influence: Gender (male-female)
  • Domain: Student
  • Sub-Domain: Physical influences
  • Potential to Accelerate Student Achievement: Likely to have a small positive impact
  • Influence Definition: The difference for males and females (in all cases, regardless of the direction in the original meta-analysis, all are converted to male-female effects). While there are other notions of gender, so far all meta-analyses have compared male and female students.

Evidence

  • Number of meta-analyses: 32
  • Number of studies: 2,733
  • Number of students: 11,150,902
  • Number of effects: 5,049
  • Effect size: 0.07

Meta-Analyses

Meta-Analyses
Journal Title Author First Author's Country Article Name Year Published Variable Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Effect Size
Conference; Australian Association for Research in Education Hattie & Hansford Australia Designing and implementing a meta-analysis 1980 Gender and achievement 72 0 503 -0.02
American Psychologist Hyde USA How large are cognitive gender differences? 1981 Gender and cognitive achievement 16 65,193 16 0.43
American Psychologist Hyde USA How large are cognitive gender differences? 1981 Reading and gender 27 68,899 27 -0.24
Conference paper; American Educational Research Association Kahl, Fleming & Malone USA Sex-related differences in pre-college science: findings of the science meta-analysis project 1982 Pre-college science and achievement 169 0 31 0.12
Review of Educational Research Steinkamp & Maehr USA Affect, ability, and science achievement: A quantitative synthesis of correlational research 1983 Gender differences in science 83 0 107 0.19
Unpublished thesis Freeman USA A meta-analysis of gender differences in mathematics achievement 1984 Gender differences in mathematics 35 0 35 0.09
Child Development Meehan USA A meta-analysis of sex differences in formal operational thought 1984 Formal operations and gender 53 0 160 0.14
Journal of Educational Psychology Johnson USA Sex differences in problem solving 1984 Gender in problem solving 9 0 9 0.45
Child Development Linn & Peterson USA Emergence and characterization of sex differences in spatial ability: A meta-analysis 1985 Spatial achievement and gender 172 0 263 0.40
AERA Conference Becker & Chang USA Measurement of Science Achievement and Its Role in Gender Differences 1986 Science and gender 42 0 42 0.16
National Science Foundation Tohidi, Steinkamp & Maehr USA Gender differences in performance on tests of cognitive functioning: a meta-analysis of research findings 1986 Cognitive functioning and gender 70 0 70 0.32
Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology Born, Bleichrodt & Van der Flier Netherlands Cross-cultural comparison of sex-related differences on intelligence tests: A meta-analysis 1987 Gender in intelligence 17 0 772 0.08
Psychological Bulletin Hyde & Linn USA Gender differences in verbal ability: a meta-analysis 1988 Gender differences on verbal achievement 165 1,418,899 165 -0.11
Review of Educational Research Friedman USA Mathematics and the Gender Gap: A Met-Analysis of Recent Studies on Sex Differences in Mathematical Tasks 1989 Math and gender 98 227,879 98 0.02
Unpublished thesis Hines USA Gender-related differences in mathematics participation and achievement: a meta-analysis 1989 Math and gender 30 0 260 0.01
Journal of Research in Science Teaching Becker USA Gender and science achievement: A reanalysis of studies from two meta-analyses 1989 Gender differences in science 29 17,603 67 0.16
Perceptual and Motor Skills Stumpf & Klieme Germany Sex-related differences in spatial ability: more evidence for convergence 1989 Spatial achievement and gender 18 171,824 18 0.48
American Educational Research Journal Hengkietiasak USA Instructional Effects of Cues, Participation, and Corrective Feedback: A Quantitative Synthesis 1989 Math and gender 34 88,253 160 0.23
Early Childhood Research Quarterly Magnuson, Kelchen, Duncan, Schindler, Shager, &Yoshikawa USA Do The Effects of Early Childhood Programs on Academic Outcomes Vary by Gender? A Meta-Analysis 2016 Early childhood programs 21 0 23 0.10
Unpublished thesis Thompson USA The mothers and fathers of invention: meta-analyses of gender differences in creativity 2016 Sex on creativity 271 137,247 480 -0.06
Intelligence Lynn & Irwing Northern Ireland Sex differences in mental arithmetic, digit span, and g defined as working memory capacity 2008 Sex in math 28 0 28 0.28
Psychological Bulletin Hyde, Fennema & Lamon USA Gender differences in mathematics performance: A meta-analysis 1990 Gender and cognitive achievement 100 3,217,489 259 0.20
Psychological Bulletin Cohn USA Sex Differences in the Course of Personality Development: A Meta-Analysis 1991 Gender on ego enhancement 65 9,000 113 -0.61
International Journal of Educational Research Frost, Hyde & Fennema USA Gender, mathematics performance, and mathematics-related attitudes and affect: A meta-analytic synthesis 1994 Math and gender 100 0 254 0.15
ERIC Debaz USA Meta-Analysis of the Relationship between Students' Characteristics and Achievement and Attitudes toward Science. 1994 Gender and achievement 67 7,026 9 0.26
Journal of Educational and Behavioural Statistics Schram USA A meta-analysis of gender differences in applied statistics achievement 1996 Applied statistics and gender 13 4,134 18 -0.08
Conference paper Yang USA Validity issues in cross-national relational analyses: a meta-analytic approach to perceived gender differences on mathematics learning 1997 Math and gender 25 0 25 -0.34
Studies in Educational Evaluation Lietz Germany A meta-analysis of gender differences in reading achievement at the secondary school level 2006 Reading and gender 139 0 139 -0.19
Journal of Educational Psychology Fischer, Schult, & Hell Germany Sex-specific differential prediction of college admission tests: A meta-analysis 2013 Sex on college admission performance 130 493,048 130 -0.24
Journal of Educational Psychology Reilly, Neumann, & Andrews USA Sex Differences in Mathematics and Science Achievement: A Meta-Analysis of National Assessment of Educational Progress Assessments 2015 Sex on NAEP math & science 24 2,804,016 24 0.09
Psychological Bulletin Voyer & Voyer Canada Gender Differences in Scholastic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis 2014 Gender on achievement 369 1,134,042 502 -0.23
Psychological Bulletin Lindberg, Hyde, Petersen & Linn USA New trends in gender and mathematics performance: a meta-analysis 2010 Math and gender 242 1,286,350 242 0.05
TOTAL/AVERAGE 2,733 11,150,902 5,049 0.07

Confidence

The Confidence is the average of these four measures, each divided into five approximately equal groups and assigned a value from 1 to 5 based on the following criteria:

  • Number of Meta-analyses
    • 1 = 1
    • 2 = 2–3
    • 3 = 4–6
    • 4 = 7–9
    • 5 = 10+
  • Number of Studies
    • 1 = 1–10
    • 2 = 11–50
    • 3 = 51–200
    • 4 = 201–400
    • 5 = 400+
  • Number of Students
    • 1 = 1–2,500
    • 2 = 2,501–10,000
    • 3 = 10,000–20,000
    • 4 = 20,000–100,000
    • 5 = 100,001+
  • Number of Effects
    • 1 = 1–100
    • 2 = 101–300
    • 3 = 301–600
    • 4 = 601–1,200
    • 5 = 1,200+
Confidences
Number of Meta-Analyses Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Overall Confidence
Confidence Factor 5 5 5 5 5
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