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Version 1.2 – Updated June 2023

Formative evaluation


  • Influence: Formative evaluation
  • Domain: Teaching Strategies
  • Sub-Domain: Feedback
  • Potential to Accelerate Student Achievement: Potential to accelerate
  • Influence Definition: This involves providing instruction or feedback during the lesson rather than at the end (summative) of a lesson or series of lessons. As Bob Stake noted, when the cook tastes the soup, it is formative evaluation; when the guests taste the soup, it is summative evaluation. It can also be a way for teachers to determine if the strategies they are using to teach are effective or need, changed, or a need to reteach.


  • Number of meta-analyses: 6
  • Number of studies: 256
  • Number of students: 118,315
  • Number of effects: 905
  • Weighted mean effect size: 0.40
  • Robustness index: 4


Journal Title Author First Author's Country Article Name Year Published Variable Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Effect Size
Exceptional Children Fuchs & Fuchs USA Effects of Systematic Formative Evaluation: A Meta-Analysis 1986 Formative evaluation 21 3,835 21 0.70
Dissertation Kim USA Effects of implementing performance assessments on student learning: Meta-analysis using HLM. 2005 Formative assessment 148 0 644 0.39
Internet site Faber and Visscher Netherlands Digitale leerlingvolgsystemen: een review van de effecten op leerprestaties 2014 Formative assessment 15 0 40 0.40
Educational Review Chen & Li China Formative Assessment in China and Its Effects on EFL Learners' Learning Achievement: A Meta-Analysis from Policy Transfer Perspective. 2021 Formative assessment on EFL 27 0 33 0.46
Conference paper Lee, Chung, Abedi, & Rashedi USA Systematic review of formative assessment: Efficacy and characteristics. 2018 Formative assessment 32 0 125 0.28
Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice Kingston & Nash USA Formative assessment: A meta-analysis and a call for research 2011 Efficacy of formative assessment 13 114,480 42 0.25
TOTAL/AVERAGE 256 118,315 905 0.41
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