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Version 1.1 – Updated August 2021

Formative evaluation

Overview

  • Influence: Formative evaluation
  • Domain: Teaching Strategies
  • Sub-Domain: Feedback
  • Potential to Accelerate Student Achievement: Potential to accelerate
  • Influence Definition: This involves providing instruction or feedback during the lesson rather than at the end (summative) of a lesson or series of lessons. As Bob Stake noted, when the cook tastes the soup, it is formative evaluation; when the guests taste the soup, it is summative evaluation.

Evidence

  • Number of meta-analyses: 5
  • Number of studies: 229
  • Number of students: 118,315
  • Number of effects: 872
  • Effect size: 0.40

Meta-Analyses

Meta-Analyses
Journal Title Author First Author's Country Article Name Year Published Variable Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Effect Size
Exceptional Children Fuchs & Fuchs USA Effects of Systematic Formative Evaluation: A Meta-Analysis 1986 Formative evaluation 21 3,835 21 0.70
Unpublished Thesis Kim USA Effects of implementing performance assessments on student learning: Meta-analysis using HLM. 2005 Formative assessment 148 0 644 0.39
4W. Retrieved from http://www.kennisnet.nl/onder zoek/alle-onderzoeken/digitale-leerlingvolgsystemen-een-review-van-de-effecten-op-leerprestaties/ Faber and Visscher Netherlands Digitale leerlingvolgsystemen: een review van de effecten op leerprestaties 2014 Formative assessment 15 0 40 0.40
AERA Conference Lee, Chung, Abedi, & Rashedi USA Systematic review of formative assessment: Efficacy and characteristics. 2018 Formative assessment 32 0 125 0.28
Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice Kingston & Nash USA Formative assessment: A meta-analysis and a call for research 2011 Efficacy of formative assessment 13 114,480 42 0.25
TOTAL/AVERAGE 229 118,315 872 0.40

Confidence

The Confidence is the average of these four measures, each divided into five approximately equal groups and assigned a value from 1 to 5 based on the following criteria:

  • Number of Meta-analyses
    • 1 = 1
    • 2 = 2–3
    • 3 = 4–6
    • 4 = 7–9
    • 5 = 10+
  • Number of Studies
    • 1 = 1–10
    • 2 = 11–50
    • 3 = 51–200
    • 4 = 201–400
    • 5 = 400+
  • Number of Students
    • 1 = 1–2,500
    • 2 = 2,501–10,000
    • 3 = 10,000–20,000
    • 4 = 20,000–100,000
    • 5 = 100,001+
  • Number of Effects
    • 1 = 1–100
    • 2 = 101–300
    • 3 = 301–600
    • 4 = 601–1,200
    • 5 = 1,200+
Confidences
Number of Meta-Analyses Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Overall Confidence
Confidence Factor 3 4 5 4 4
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