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Version 1.2 – Updated June 2023

Flipped classrooms


  • Influence: Flipped classrooms
  • Domain: Teaching Strategies
  • Sub-Domain: Instructional strategies
  • Potential to Accelerate Student Achievement: Potential to considerably accelerate
  • Influence Definition: An educational technique in which traditional classroom activities (such as lecture) are held at home or before the class, often via pre-recorded video or audio presentations, which prepares the students for more interactive, discovery, questioning, and engagement in active learning activities in the classroom itself.


  • Number of meta-analyses: 48
  • Number of studies: 2,492
  • Number of students: 181,268
  • Number of effects: 3,303
  • Weighted mean effect size: 0.56
  • Robustness index: 5


Journal Title Author First Author's Country Article Name Year Published Variable Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Effect Size
Chinese Nursing Research Tan, Yue, & Fu China Effectiveness of flipped classrooms in nursing education: Systematic review and meta-analysis. 2017 Flipped classroom in nursing 29 3,694 29 1.13
BMC Medical education Hew & Lo Hong Kong Flipped classroom improves student learning in health professions education: a meta-analysis 2018 Flipped in health professions 28 4,715 28 0.33
The Society of Digital Policy and Management Kang & Shin Korea The effect of flipped learning in Korea: Meta-analysis. 2016 Flipped classrooms 36 0 288 0.54
H.U Journal of Education Karagol & Esen Turkey The Effect of Flipped Learning Approach on Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis Study 2019 Questioning/strategy instruction in reading 55 0 80 0.57
Medical Education Chen, Monrouxe, Lu, Jenq, Chang, Chang, & Chai Taiwan Academic outcomes of flipped classroom learning: a meta-analysis 2018 Flipped classrooms 46 9,026 46 0.54
Journal of Aba Teachers University Deshen & Yu Japan The influence of flipping classroom on the academic achievements of students at higher vocational colleges: Meta-analysis evidence based on the random effect model. 2021 Flipped classrooms 28 0 28 0.49
Review of Educational Research Bredow, Roehling, Knorp, & Sweet USA To Flip or Not to Flip? A Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Flipped Learning in Higher Education. 2021 Flipped classrooms 282 51,437 282 0.39
Nastava i vaspitanje Ralevic & Tomaševic Serbia Poredenje efektivnosti modela obrnute ucionice i modela tradicionalne nastave-metaanaliza. 2021 Flipped classrooms 22 0 22 0.97
Dissertation Sparkes Canada Flipped Classrooms versus Traditional Classrooms: A systematic review and meta-analysis of student achievement in higher education 2019 Flipped classrooms 114 0 125 0.30
Asia Pacific Education Review Tutal & Yazar Turkey Flipped classroom improves academic achievement, learning retention and attitude towards course: a meta-analysis 2021 Flipped classrooms 177 17,807 177 0.76
Journal of Statistics Education Farmus, Cribbie, & Rotondi Canada The flipped classroom in introductory statistics: Early evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis 2020 Flipped classrooms 10 0 10 0.43
Research in Science and Technological Education Dogan, Batdi, & Yasar Turkey Effectiveness of flipped classroom practices in teaching of science: a mixed research synthesis 2021 Flipped classrooms 30 0 30 0.73
Science Insights Education Frontiers Zhang, Cheung, & Cheung China The Impact of Flipped Classroom on College Students' Academic Performance: A Meta-Analysis Based on 20 Experimental Studies 2021 Flipped classrooms 20 0 28 0.66
E-education Research Li, Pang, Wang China Study on the Effect of Flipped Classroom Teaching on Students' Learning Effect: A Meta-Analysis Based on 37 Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Studies 2018 Flipped classrooms 37 0 37 0.37
The Journal of Korean Academic Society of Nursing Education Hyang & Mi Korea A systematic review and meta-analysis of flipped learning among university students in Korea: Self-directed learning, learning motivation, efficacy, and learning achievement. 2021 Flipped classrooms 21 0 21 0.66
Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education Aydin, Okmen, & Sahin Turkey The meta-analysis of the studies about the effects of flipped on students' achievement 2021 Flipped classrooms 25 0 25 0.71
Educational Technology Research and Development Shahnama, Ghonsooly, & Shrivan Iran A meta-analysis of relative effectiveness of flipped learning in English as second/foreign language research. 2021 Flipped classrooms 69 0 69 1.24
REICE Revista Iberoamericana sobre Calidad, Eficacia y Cambio en Educación Martínez, Díaz, Rodríguez, & Rodríguez-García Spain Eficacia del método flipped classroom en la universidad: Meta-análisis de la producción científica de impacto. 2019 Flipped classrooms 12 3,326 12 2.29
Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research Turan Turkey Evaluating Whether Flipped Classrooms Improve Student Learning in Science Education: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. 2021 Flipped classrooms 18 2,845 18 0.63
Korea Curriculum and Evaluation Institute Bong-Seok Korea A meta-analysis of the effect of flip learning on the development and academic achievement of elementary school students. 2018 Flipped classrooms 29 0 29 0.56
Education and Information Technologies Güler, Kokoç & Bütüner Turkey Does a flipped classroom model work in mathematics education? A meta-analysis. 2021 Flipped classrooms 37 0 40 0.40
Cukurova University Faculty of Education Journal Yakar Turkey The Effect of Flipped Learning Model on Primary and Secondary School Students' Mathematics Achievement: A Meta-Analysis Study 2021 Flipped classrooms 45 0 46 0.51
Journal of Digital Convergence Kang & Kang Korea The effectiveness of a flipped learning on Korean nursing students; A meta-analysis. 2021 Flipped classrooms 23 0 23 1.21
Medicine Ge, Chen, Yan, Chen, & Liu China Effectiveness of flipped classroom vs traditional lectures in radiology education: A meta-analysis. 2020 Flipped classrooms 19 2,114 19 1.86
PloS one Li, Cao, Ren, Chu, Zhou, & Guo China Flipped classroom improves nursing students' theoretical learning in China: A meta-analysis 2020 Flipped classrooms 32 0 32 1.46
Language Teaching Research Vitta & Al-Hoorie Japan The flipped classroom in second language learning: A meta-analysis. 2020 Flipped classrooms 56 4,220 61 0.58
Cukurova University Faculty of Education Journal Orhan Turkey The effect of flipped learning on students' academic achievement: A meta-analysis study 2019 Flipped classrooms 13 0 13 0.74
Journal of Digital Convergence Cho & Lee Korea A meta analysis on effects of flipped learning in Korea 2018 Flipped classrooms 95 0 95 0.54
Dissertation Lo, Hew & Chen Hong Kong Toward a set of design principles for mathematics flipped classrooms: A synthesis of research in mathematics education 2017 Flipped classrooms 21 0 21 0.30
Education Sciences Jang & Kim Korea A Meta-Analysis of the Cognitive, Affective, and Interpersonal Outcomes of Flipped Classrooms in Higher Education 2020 Flipped classrooms 43 0 153 0.24
Report Wagner, Gegenfurtner, & Urhahne Germany Effectiveness of the flipped classroom on student achievement in secondary education: A meta-analysis. 2019 Flipped classrooms 25 2,323 44 0.42
Education Technology and Research development Cheng, Ritzhaupt, & Antonenko USA Effects of the flipped classroom instructional strategy on students' learning outcomes: A meta-analysis 2019 Flipped classrooms 55 7,912 115 0.19
Dissertation Zhang Hong Kong A systematic review and meta-analysis on flipped learning in science education 2018 Flipped classrooms 28 0 28 0.42
International Journal of Nursing Studies Hu, Gao, Ye, Ni, Jiang, & Jiang China Effectiveness of flipped classrooms in Chinese baccalaureate nurse education: A meta-analysis o randomized controlled trials 2018 Flipped classrooms 11 1,180 11 1.19
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education Gillette, Rudolph, Kimble, Rockich-Winston, Smith, & Broedel-Zaugg USA A meta-analysis of outcomes comparing flipped classrooms and Lecture 2018 Flipped classrooms 6 315 6 0.35
Conference paper Algarni UK A meta-analysis on the effectiveness of flipped classroom in mathematics education. 2018 Flipped classrooms 34 8,598 36 0.27
Journal of Computers in Education Shi, Ma, MacLeod, & Yang China College students' cognitive learning outcomes in flipped classroom instruction: A meta-analysis of the empirical literature. 2020 Flipped classrooms 33 6,957 33 0.53
Frontiers of Nursing Liu, Li, Lei, Liu, Theobald, Meng, Liu, Zhang, & Jin China Effectiveness of the flipped classroom on the development of self-directed learning in nursing education: A meta-analysis. 2018 Flipped classrooms in nursing 12 1,440 12 1.18
Nurse Education Today Xu, Chen, Nie, Wang, Song, Li, Li, Yo, & Zhao China The effectiveness of a flipped classroom on the development of Chinese nursing students' skill competence: A systematic review and meta-analysis. 2019 Flipped classrooms 22 4,295 22 1.79
Conference paper Zhu, Thompson, Suarez, & Peng China A meta-analysis on the effect of flipped instruction on K-12 students' academic achievement 2019 Flipped classrooms 25 0 25 0.56
Educational Technology Research and Development Zhu China Is flipping effective? A meta-analysis of the effect of flipped instruction on K-12 students' academic achievement.  2021 Flipped classrooms 27 0 53 0.54
Educational Research Review Strelan, Osborn, & Palmer Australia The flipped classroom: A meta-analysis of effects on student performance across disciplines and education levels. 2020 Flipped classrooms 174 33,678 198 0.50
Journal of Curriculum and Evaluation Jang Korea Meta-Analysis of Effects of Flipped Learning on Elementary School Students. 2020 Flipped classrooms 29 0 292 0.56
Education Technology and Society Zheng, Bhagat, Zhen, & Zhang China The Effectiveness of the Flipped Classroom on Students' Learning Achievement and Learning Motivation: A Meta-Analysis. 2020 Flipped classrooms 95 15,386 95 0.44
Educational Research Review van Alten, Phielix, Janssen, & Kester Netherlands Effects of flipped the classroom on learning outcomes and satisfaction: A meta-analysis 2019 Flipped classrooms 114 0 115 0.36
AERA Open Lag & Saele Norway Does the flipped classroom improve student learning and satisfaction? A systematic review and meta-analysis 2019 Flipped classrooms 271 0 272 0.35
Journal of Education and Culture Yoon Korea A meta-analysis for effects of flipped learning on secondary school students 2018 Flipped classrooms 26 0 26 0.83
Dissertation Lv China A Meta-analysis on Learning Achievement of Flipped Classroom 2017 Flipped classrooms 33 0 33 0.37
TOTAL/AVERAGE 2,492 181,268 3,303 0.69
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