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Version 1.1 – Updated August 2021

Feedback (Reinforcement and cues)

Overview

  • Influence: Feedback (Reinforcement and cues)
  • Domain: Teaching Strategies
  • Sub-Domain: Feedback
  • Potential to Accelerate Student Achievement: Potential to considerably accelerate
  • Influence Definition: Feedback in terms of reinforcement (positive and negative) and cues to advance to next steps in learning

Evidence

  • Number of meta-analyses: 4
  • Number of studies: 127
  • Number of students: 21,053
  • Number of effects: 230
  • Effect size: 0.92

Meta-Analyses

Meta-Analyses
Journal Title Author First Author's Country Article Name Year Published Variable Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Effect Size
Evaluation in Education Lysakowski & Walberg USA Classroom reinforcement 1980 Classroom reinforcement 39 4,842 102 1.17
American Educational Research Journal Walberg USA Instructional effects of cues, participation, and corrective feedback: A quantitative synthesis. 1982 Cues, and reinforcement 19 0 19 0.81
Journal of Research and Development in Education Tenenbaum & Goldring Israel A meta-analysis of the effect of enhanced instruction: Cues, participation, reinforcement and feedback and correctives on motor skill learning 1989 Cues, and reinforcement 15 522 15 0.72
American Educational Research Journal Lysakowski & Walberg USA Instructional effects of cues, participation, and corrective feedback: a quantitative synthesis 1982 Cues, participation and corrective feedback 54 15,689 94 0.97
TOTAL/AVERAGE 127 21,053 230 0.92

Confidence

The Confidence is the average of these four measures, each divided into five approximately equal groups and assigned a value from 1 to 5 based on the following criteria:

  • Number of Meta-analyses
    • 1 = 1
    • 2 = 2–3
    • 3 = 4–6
    • 4 = 7–9
    • 5 = 10+
  • Number of Studies
    • 1 = 1–10
    • 2 = 11–50
    • 3 = 51–200
    • 4 = 201–400
    • 5 = 400+
  • Number of Students
    • 1 = 1–2,500
    • 2 = 2,501–10,000
    • 3 = 10,000–20,000
    • 4 = 20,000–100,000
    • 5 = 100,001+
  • Number of Effects
    • 1 = 1–100
    • 2 = 101–300
    • 3 = 301–600
    • 4 = 601–1,200
    • 5 = 1,200+
Confidences
Number of Meta-Analyses Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Overall Confidence
Confidence Factor 3 3 4 2 3
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