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Version 1.1 – Updated August 2021

Family structure

Overview

  • Influence: Family structure
  • Domain: Home
  • Sub-Domain: Family structure
  • Potential to Accelerate Student Achievement: Likely to have a small positive impact
  • Influence Definition: Families can include one, two, or more parents (in some cultures, children are brought up in multiple family situations), LGBTQ+ parents, and parents who work or stay at home with their children.

Evidence

  • Number of meta-analyses: 4
  • Number of studies: 231
  • Number of students: 45,318
  • Number of effects: 576
  • Effect size: 0.16

Meta-Analyses

Meta-Analyses
Journal Title Author First Author's Country Article Name Year Published Variable Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Effect Size
Psychological Bulletin Falbo & Polit USA Quantitative review of the only child literature: Research evidence and theory development 1986 Only vs. non-only children 115 0 115 0.17
Review of Educational Research Kim USA 2013 Effects of mothers 63 0 408 0.28
Psychological Bulletin Murray, Farrington, & Sekol England Children's antisocial behavior, mental health, drug use, and educational performance after parental incarceration: a systematic review and meta-analysis 2012 Incarcerated parents 40 44,699 40 0.08
Journal of Homosexuality Allen & Burrell USA Comparing the Impact of Homosexual and Heterosexual Parents on Children 1996 Heterosexual vs.. Homosexual parents 13 619 13 0.11
TOTAL/AVERAGE 231 45,318 576 0.16

Confidence

The Confidence is the average of these four measures, each divided into five approximately equal groups and assigned a value from 1 to 5 based on the following criteria:

  • Number of Meta-analyses
    • 1 = 1
    • 2 = 2–3
    • 3 = 4–6
    • 4 = 7–9
    • 5 = 10+
  • Number of Studies
    • 1 = 1–10
    • 2 = 11–50
    • 3 = 51–200
    • 4 = 201–400
    • 5 = 400+
  • Number of Students
    • 1 = 1–2,500
    • 2 = 2,501–10,000
    • 3 = 10,000–20,000
    • 4 = 20,000–100,000
    • 5 = 100,001+
  • Number of Effects
    • 1 = 1–100
    • 2 = 101–300
    • 3 = 301–600
    • 4 = 601–1,200
    • 5 = 1,200+
Confidences
Number of Meta-Analyses Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Overall Confidence
Confidence Factor 3 4 4 3 4
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