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Version 1.2 – Updated June 2023

Exposure to reading


  • Influence: Exposure to reading
  • Domain: Curricula
  • Sub-Domain: Reading, writing and the arts
  • Potential to Accelerate Student Achievement: Potential to accelerate
  • Influence Definition: This relates to exposure to reading a diverse (or lack of) variety of genres/styles, authors, concepts about print and stories both at home and at school. This encompasses reading for pleasure or other purposes.


  • Number of meta-analyses: 16
  • Number of studies: 606
  • Number of students: 410,313
  • Number of effects: 1,785
  • Weighted mean effect size: 0.50
  • Robustness index: 5


Journal Title Author First Author's Country Article Name Year Published Variable Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Effect Size
Review of Educational Research Bus, van IJzendoorn, & Pellegrini USA Joint book reading makes for success in learning to read: A meta-analysis on intergenerational transmission of literacy. 1995 Joint book reading 29 3,410 33 0.59
Language Learning Blok Netherlands Reading to Young Children in Educational Settings: A Meta-Analysis of Recent Research 1999 Reading to young children 11 0 53 0.63
Educational Studies Torgerson, King & Sowden UK Do volunteers in schools help children learn to read? A systematic review of randomised controlled trials 2002 Volunteers helping to read 8 0 8 0.19
Reading Improvement Yoon USA Three decades of sustained silent reading: a meta-analytic review of the effects of SSR on attitude toward reading 2002 Sustained silent reading 7 3,183 7 0.12
English language teaching Liu China The Effects of Extensive Reading on English Vocabulary Learning: A Meta-Analysis. 2018 Extensive reading on vocabulary 21 1,268 17 1.32
Book Lewis & Samuels USA Read more-read better?: A meta-analysis of the literature on the relationship between exposure to reading and reading achievement 2002 Time on reading 49 112,000 182 0.10
Review of Educational Research Mol, Bus & de Jong Netherlands Interactive book reading in early education: A tool to stimulate print knowledge as well as oral language. 2009 Interactive books on oral language & print knowledge 31 2,049 31 0.50
Journal of Learning Disabilities Swanson, Vaughn, Wanzek, Petscher, Heckert, Cavanaugh, Kraft, & Tackett USA A synthesis of read-aloud interventions on early reading outcomes among preschool through third graders at risk for reading difficulties. 2011 Read aloud instruction 23 0 23 0.65
Educational Research Review Slavin, Lake, Davis & Madden USA Effective programs for struggling readers: A best-evidence synthesis 2011 Tutoring by paraprofessionals and volunteers 19 2,893 19 0.45
Psychological Bulletin Mol & Bus Netherlands To read or not to read: a meta-analysis of print exposure from infancy to early adulthood 2011 Print exposure 99 7,669 383 0.78
Reading as a Foreign Language Jeon & Day Korea The effectiveness of ER on reading proficiency: A meta-analysis. 2016 Extensive reading 49 5,919 71 0.57
Dissertation Nakanishi USA A meta-analysis of extensive reading research. 2014 Extensive reading 34 3,942 43 0.46
Conference paper Lindsay USA Children's access to print material and education-related outcomes: Findings from a meta-analytic review 2010 Access to print and books 108 0 625 0.46
Review of Educational Research Fitton, McIlraith, & Wood USA Shared book reading interventions with English learners: A meta-analysis. 2018 Shared book reading 54 3,989 226 0.28
Dissertation Stephenson Canada Environmental, Motivational, and Cognitive Predictors of Emergent Literacy and Reading Skills. 2011 Shared book reading 23 2,039 23 0.54
Review of Educational Research Kim & Quinn USA The Effects of Summer Reading on Low-Income Children's Literacy Achievement From Kindergarten to Grade 8 A Meta-Analysis of Classroom and Home Interventions. 2013 Summer reading programs 41 261,952 41 0.10
TOTAL/AVERAGE 606 410,313 1,785 0.48
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