"
Skip to Content
Version 1.1 – Updated August 2021

Exposure to reading

Overview

  • Influence: Exposure to reading
  • Domain: Curricula
  • Sub-Domain: Reading, writing and the arts
  • Potential to Accelerate Student Achievement: Potential to accelerate
  • Influence Definition: This relates to exposure to reading and concepts about print and stories at home and at school.

Evidence

  • Number of meta-analyses: 16
  • Number of studies: 603
  • Number of students: 409,693
  • Number of effects: 1,824
  • Effect size: 0.43

Meta-Analyses

Meta-Analyses
Journal Title Author First Author's Country Article Name Year Published Variable Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Effect Size
Review of Educational Research Bus, van IJzendoorn, & Pellegrini USA Joint book reading makes for success in learning to read: A meta-analysis on intergenerational transmission of literacy. 1995 Joint book reading 29 3,410 33 0.59
Language Learning Blok Netherlands Reading to Young Children in Educational Settings: A Meta-Analysis of Recent Research 1999 Reading to young children 11 0 53 0.63
Educational Studies Torgerson, King & Sowden UK Do volunteers in schools help children learn to read? A systematic review of randomised controlled trials 2002 Volunteers helping to read 8 0 8 0.19
Reading Improvement Yoon USA Three decades of sustained silent reading: a meta-analytic review of the effects of SSR on attitude toward reading 2002 Sustained silent reading 7 3,183 7 0.12
Unpublished Thesis Lewis & Samuels Read more-read better?: A meta-analysis of the literature on the relationship between exposure to reading and reading achievement 2005 Time on reading 49 112,000 182 0.10
Review of Educational Research Mol, Bus & de Jong Netherlands Interactive book reading in early education: A tool to stimulate print knowledge as well as oral language. 2009 Interactive books on oral language & print knowledge 31 2,049 31 0.50
Journal of Learning Disabilities Swanson, Vaughn, Wanzek, Petscher, Heckert, Cavanaugh, Kraft, & Tackett USA A synthesis of read-aloud interventions on early reading outcomes among preschool through third graders at risk for reading difficulties. 2011 Read aloud instruction 23 0 23 0.65
Educational Research Review Slavin, Lake, Davis & Madden Effective programs for struggling readers: A best-evidence synthesis 2009 Tutoring by paraprofessionals and volunteers 19 2,893 19 0.45
Psychological Bulletin Mol & Bus Netherlands To read or not to read: a meta-analysis of print exposure from infancy to early adulthood 2011 Print exposure 99 7,669 383 0.78
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology Roberts & Kaiser USA The effectiveness of parent-implemented language interventions: A meta-analysis 2011 Parent implementation of language programs on language development 18 648 56 0.51
Unpublished Thesis Nakanishi USA A meta-analysis of extensive reading research. 2014 Extensive reading 34 3,942 43 0.46
Unpublished Conference Paper: Learning Point Associates Lindsay USA Children's access to print material and education-related outcomes: Findings from a meta-analytic review 2011 Access to print and books 108 0 625 0.46
Unpublished Thesis Stephenson Canada Environmental, Motivational, and Cognitive Predictors of Emergent Literacy and Reading Skills. 2011 Shared book reading 23 2,039 23 0.54
Review of Educational Research Kim & Quinn USA The Effects of Summer Reading on Low-Income Children’s Literacy Achievement From Kindergarten to Grade 8 A Meta-Analysis of Classroom and Home Interventions. 2013 Summer reading programs 41 261,952 41 0.10
Reading as a Foreign Language Jeon & Day Korea The effectiveness of ER on reading proficiency: A meta-analysis. 2016 Extensive reading 49 5,919 71 0.57
Review of Educational Research Fitton, McIlraith, & Wood USA Shared book reading interventions with English learners: A meta-analysis. 2018 Shared book reading 54 3,989 226 0.28
TOTAL/AVERAGE 603 409,693 1,824 0.43

Confidence

The Confidence is the average of these four measures, each divided into five approximately equal groups and assigned a value from 1 to 5 based on the following criteria:

  • Number of Meta-analyses
    • 1 = 1
    • 2 = 2–3
    • 3 = 4–6
    • 4 = 7–9
    • 5 = 10+
  • Number of Studies
    • 1 = 1–10
    • 2 = 11–50
    • 3 = 51–200
    • 4 = 201–400
    • 5 = 400+
  • Number of Students
    • 1 = 1–2,500
    • 2 = 2,501–10,000
    • 3 = 10,000–20,000
    • 4 = 20,000–100,000
    • 5 = 100,001+
  • Number of Effects
    • 1 = 1–100
    • 2 = 101–300
    • 3 = 301–600
    • 4 = 601–1,200
    • 5 = 1,200+
Confidences
Number of Meta-Analyses Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Overall Confidence
Confidence Factor 5 5 5 5 5
Back to top