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Version 1.1 – Updated August 2021

Engaged vs. disengaged fathers

Overview

  • Influence: Engaged vs. disengaged fathers
  • Domain: Home
  • Sub-Domain: Family structure
  • Potential to Accelerate Student Achievement: Likely to have positive impact
  • Influence Definition: While fathers’ mean levels of overall involvement in the education of children tends to be lower than that of mothers, their involvement nonetheless influences their children’s academic achievement just as strongly as the involvement of mothers.

Evidence

  • Number of meta-analyses: 7
  • Number of studies: 353
  • Number of students: 9,969,589
  • Number of effects: 600
  • Effect size: 0.21

Meta-Analyses

Meta-Analyses
Journal Title Author First Author's Country Article Name Year Published Variable Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Effect Size
Conference paper Salzman USA Meta-analysis of studies investigating the effects of father absence on children's cognitive performance 1987 Father present vs. father absent 137 9,955,118 273 0.26
Journal of Marriage and the Family Amato & Gilbreth USA Nonresident Fathers and Children's Well-Being: A Meta-Analysis 1999 Fathers presence in family 52 14,471 52 0.07
Journal of Family Psychology Amato USA Children of Divorce in the 1990s: An Update of the Amato and Keith (1991) Meta-Analysis 2001 Resident vs. non resident fathers 67 0 177 0.29
Early Education and Development McWayne, Downer, Campos, & Harris USA Father involvement during early childhood and its association with children's early learning: A meta-analysis 2014 Father involvement 21 0 22 0.43
Journal of Educational Psychology Kim & Hill USA Including Fathers in the Picture: A Meta-Analysis of Parental Involvement and Students' Academic Achievement 2015 Father involvement 29 0 29 0.28
Journal of Family Psychology Adamsons & Johnson USA An updated and expanded meta-analysis of nonresident fathering and child well-being 2013 Nonresident fathers on achievement 17 0 17 0.04
Unpublished Conference Paper Jeynes USA Father Involvement, African Americans, and Reducing the Achievement Gap Father Involvement in Young Children’s Lives 2013 Fathers vs. non fathers 30 0 30 0.11
TOTAL/AVERAGE 353 9,969,589 600 0.21

Confidence

The Confidence is the average of these four measures, each divided into five approximately equal groups and assigned a value from 1 to 5 based on the following criteria:

  • Number of Meta-analyses
    • 1 = 1
    • 2 = 2–3
    • 3 = 4–6
    • 4 = 7–9
    • 5 = 10+
  • Number of Studies
    • 1 = 1–10
    • 2 = 11–50
    • 3 = 51–200
    • 4 = 201–400
    • 5 = 400+
  • Number of Students
    • 1 = 1–2,500
    • 2 = 2,501–10,000
    • 3 = 10,000–20,000
    • 4 = 20,000–100,000
    • 5 = 100,001+
  • Number of Effects
    • 1 = 1–100
    • 2 = 101–300
    • 3 = 301–600
    • 4 = 601–1,200
    • 5 = 1,200+
Confidences
Number of Meta-Analyses Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Overall Confidence
Confidence Factor 4 4 5 3 4
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