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Version 1.1 – Updated August 2021

Effects of testing

Overview

  • Influence: Effects of testing
  • Domain: Teaching Strategies
  • Sub-Domain: Feedback
  • Potential to Accelerate Student Achievement: Potential to accelerate
  • Influence Definition: This refers mainly to the effects of standardized assessments, national or state-wide mandated assessments, or overall assessment in the class.

Evidence

  • Number of meta-analyses: 6
  • Number of studies: 506
  • Number of students: 7,013,189
  • Number of effects: 1,595
  • Effect size: 0.58

Meta-Analyses

Meta-Analyses
Journal Title Author First Author's Country Article Name Year Published Variable Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Effect Size
International Journal of Testing Phelps USA The effect of testing on student achievement, 1910–2010 2012 Effects of testing 177 7,000,000 640 0.55
Unpublished Thesis Rowland USA The effect of testing versus restudy on retention: A meta-analytic review of the testing effect 2014 Effects of testing 61 0 159 0.50
The WERA Educational Journal Adesope, Trevisan, & Trevisan The Neglected Benefits of Testing: Implications for Classroom and Self-Directed Learning 2013 Effects of pre-testing 89 11,700 226 0.63
Journal of Technology Education Haynie USA Effects of Anticipation of Test on Delayed Retention Learning. 2007 Testing on retention learning 8 0 27 0.66
Review of Educational Research Fuchs & Fuchs USA Test Procedure Bias: A Meta-Analysis of Examiner Familiarity Effects 1986 Examiner familiarity effects 22 1,489 34 0.28
Evaluation Review Phelps USA Test frequency, stakes, and feedback in student achievement: A meta-analysis. 2019 Effects of testing 149 0 509 0.84
TOTAL/AVERAGE 506 7,013,189 1,595 0.58

Confidence

The Confidence is the average of these four measures, each divided into five approximately equal groups and assigned a value from 1 to 5 based on the following criteria:

  • Number of Meta-analyses
    • 1 = 1
    • 2 = 2–3
    • 3 = 4–6
    • 4 = 7–9
    • 5 = 10+
  • Number of Studies
    • 1 = 1–10
    • 2 = 11–50
    • 3 = 51–200
    • 4 = 201–400
    • 5 = 400+
  • Number of Students
    • 1 = 1–2,500
    • 2 = 2,501–10,000
    • 3 = 10,000–20,000
    • 4 = 20,000–100,000
    • 5 = 100,001+
  • Number of Effects
    • 1 = 1–100
    • 2 = 101–300
    • 3 = 301–600
    • 4 = 601–1,200
    • 5 = 1,200+
Confidences
Number of Meta-Analyses Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Overall Confidence
Confidence Factor 3 5 5 5 5
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