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Version 1.1 – Updated August 2021

Dialect use

Overview

  • Influence: Dialect use
  • Domain: Student
  • Sub-Domain: Physical influences
  • Potential to Accelerate Student Achievement: Likely to have a negative impact
  • Influence Definition: A student’s use of a non-majority dialect. The now well-known “Ann Arbor decision” (Martin Luther King Junior Elementary School Children et al. v. Ann Arbor School District, 1979) found that a school district must consider a student’s linguistic and cultural background in instructional programming, but research on dialect use was limited at the time of the decision.

Evidence

  • Number of meta-analyses: 1
  • Number of studies: 19
  • Number of students: 1,947
  • Number of effects: 19
  • Effect size: -0.29

Meta-Analyses

Meta-Analyses
Journal Title Author First Author's Country Article Name Year Published Variable Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Effect Size
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research Gatlin & Wanzek USA Relations Among Children's Use of Dialect and Literacy Skills: A Meta-Analysis 2015 Dialect use and literacy, reading, spelling & writing 19 1,947 19 -0.29
TOTAL/AVERAGE 19 1,947 19 -0.29

Confidence

The Confidence is the average of these four measures, each divided into five approximately equal groups and assigned a value from 1 to 5 based on the following criteria:

  • Number of Meta-analyses
    • 1 = 1
    • 2 = 2–3
    • 3 = 4–6
    • 4 = 7–9
    • 5 = 10+
  • Number of Studies
    • 1 = 1–10
    • 2 = 11–50
    • 3 = 51–200
    • 4 = 201–400
    • 5 = 400+
  • Number of Students
    • 1 = 1–2,500
    • 2 = 2,501–10,000
    • 3 = 10,000–20,000
    • 4 = 20,000–100,000
    • 5 = 100,001+
  • Number of Effects
    • 1 = 1–100
    • 2 = 101–300
    • 3 = 301–600
    • 4 = 601–1,200
    • 5 = 1,200+
Confidences
Number of Meta-Analyses Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Overall Confidence
Confidence Factor 1 2 1 1 1
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