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Version 1.2 – Updated June 2023

Deliberate practice


  • Influence: Deliberate practice
  • Domain: Student Learning Strategies
  • Sub-Domain: Learning strategies
  • Potential to Accelerate Student Achievement: Potential to considerably accelerate
  • Influence Definition: A learning technique that involves extensive engagement in relevant practice activities in order to improve particular aspects of performance. Deliberate practice often refers to challenging, effortful repetition, often adjusted through feedback that is purposeful and systematic. While regular practice can include much repetitions, deliberate practice requires focused attention and is conducted with the specific goal of improving performance without immediate reward.


  • Number of meta-analyses: 3
  • Number of studies: 161
  • Number of students: 13,689
  • Number of effects: 316
  • Weighted mean effect size: 0.49
  • Robustness index: 3


Journal Title Author First Author's Country Article Name Year Published Variable Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Effect Size
Psychological Science Macnamara, Hambrick, & Oswald USA Deliberate practice and performance in music, games, sports, education, and professions: A meta-analysis 2014 Deliberate practice 88 11,135 157 0.35
Journal of Sport Psychology Feltz & Landers USA The effects of mental practice on motor skill learning and performance: A meta-analysis 1983 Mental practice on motor skill learning 60 1,766 146 0.48
Frontiers in Psychology Platz, Kopiez, Lehmann, & Wolf Germany The influence of deliberate practice on musical achievement: a meta-analysis 2014 Deliberate practice 13 788 13 1.54
TOTAL/AVERAGE 161 13,689 316 0.79
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