Skip to Content
Version 1.2 – Updated June 2023

Counseling effects


  • Influence: Counseling effects
  • Domain: Classroom
  • Sub-Domain: Classroom management
  • Potential to Accelerate Student Achievement: Likely to have positive impact
  • Influence Definition: Students can be referred to counselors, in or out of school, who review the affect, the beliefs, and the social context as seen through the eyes of the student. The beneficial effects of counseling are aimed towards student adjustment, retention, and academic success; however, counseling continues to be stigmatized by many students—reducing overall rates of adoption and completion.


  • Number of meta-analyses: 5
  • Number of studies: 320
  • Number of students: 1,829
  • Number of effects: 287
  • Weighted mean effect size: 0.29
  • Robustness index: 3


Journal Title Author First Author's Country Article Name Year Published Variable Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Effect Size
Journal of School Psychology Prout & Prout USA A meta-analysis of school-based studies of counseling and psychotherapy: An update. 1998 Counseling on cognitive outcomes 17 550 6 0.00
Psychology in the Schools Whiston & Quinby USA Review of school counseling outcome research 2009 Counseling on cognitive outcomes 150 0 96 0.19
Psychology in the Schools Reese, Prout, Zirkelback & Anderson USA Effectiveness of school-based psychotherapy: A meta-analysis of dissertation research 2010 Counseling on cognitive outcomes 65 0 78 0.48
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation Villares, Frain, Brigman, Webb & Peluso USA The impact of student success skills on standardized test scores: A meta-analysis 2012 Counseling Student Success Skills 5 1,279 5 0.29
Journal of Counseling Psychology Baskin, Slaten, Merson, Sorenson & Glover-Russell USA Does youth psychotherapy improve academically related outcomes? A meta-analysis 2010 Psychotherapy on academic outcomes 83 0 102 0.38
TOTAL/AVERAGE 320 1,829 287 0.27
Back to top