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Version 1.1 – Updated August 2021

Counseling effects

Overview

  • Influence: Counseling effects
  • Domain: Classroom
  • Sub-Domain: Classroom influences
  • Potential to Accelerate Student Achievement: Likely to have positive impact
  • Influence Definition: Students can be referred to counselors who review the affect, the beliefs, and the social context as seen through the eyes of the student. The beneficial effects of counseling are aimed towards student adjustment, retention, and academic success; however, counseling continues to be stigmatized by many students—reducing overall rates of adoption and completion.

Evidence

  • Number of meta-analyses: 7
  • Number of studies: 367
  • Number of students: 30,453
  • Number of effects: 332
  • Effect size: 0.33

Meta-Analyses

Meta-Analyses
Journal Title Author First Author's Country Article Name Year Published Variable Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Effect Size
Journal of School Psychology Prout & Prout USA A meta-analysis of school-based studies of counseling and psychotherapy: An update. 1998 Counseling on cognitive outcomes 17 550 6 0.00
Psychology in the Schools Whiston, Tai, Rahardja & Eder USA Review of school counseling outcome research 2009 Counseling on cognitive outcomes 150 0 96 0.19
Psychology in the Schools Reese, Prout, Zirkelback & Anderson USA Effectiveness of school-based psychotherapy: A meta-analysis of dissertation research 2010 Counseling on cognitive outcomes 65 0 28 0.23
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation Villares, Frain, Brigman, Webb & Peluso USA The impact of student success skills on standardized test scores: A meta-analysis 2012 Counseling Student Success Skills 5 1,279 5 0.29
Unpublished Thesis Grant USA A meta-analysis of school-based interventions for middle schoolers: Academic, behavioral, and social outcomes. 2011 In school interventions for problem students 38 28,624 38 0.12
Journal of Counseling Psychology Baskin, Slaten, Merson, Sorenson & Glover-Russell USA Does youth psychotherapy improve academically related outcomes? A meta-analysis 2010 Psychotherapy on academic outcomes 83 0 102 0.36
Journal of School Psychology Burns & Symington USA A meta-analysis of prereferral intervention teams: Student and systemic outcomes 2002 Use of prereferral intervention teams 9 0 57 1.10
TOTAL/AVERAGE 367 30,453 332 0.33

Confidence

The Confidence is the average of these four measures, each divided into five approximately equal groups and assigned a value from 1 to 5 based on the following criteria:

  • Number of Meta-analyses
    • 1 = 1
    • 2 = 2–3
    • 3 = 4–6
    • 4 = 7–9
    • 5 = 10+
  • Number of Studies
    • 1 = 1–10
    • 2 = 11–50
    • 3 = 51–200
    • 4 = 201–400
    • 5 = 400+
  • Number of Students
    • 1 = 1–2,500
    • 2 = 2,501–10,000
    • 3 = 10,000–20,000
    • 4 = 20,000–100,000
    • 5 = 100,001+
  • Number of Effects
    • 1 = 1–100
    • 2 = 101–300
    • 3 = 301–600
    • 4 = 601–1,200
    • 5 = 1,200+
Confidences
Number of Meta-Analyses Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Overall Confidence
Confidence Factor 4 4 4 3 4
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