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Version 1.1 – Updated August 2021

Corporal punishment in the home

Overview

  • Influence: Corporal punishment in the home
  • Domain: Home
  • Sub-Domain: Home environment
  • Potential to Accelerate Student Achievement: Likely to have a negative impact
  • Influence Definition: The use of corporal punishment, such as spanking or hitting with objects, is associated with emotional and behavioral adjustment problems in children. These associations are strongest for children who experience high levels of punishment, who are impulsive, or who do not experience a warm and supportive family environment.

Evidence

  • Number of meta-analyses: 1
  • Number of studies: 16
  • Number of students: 11,428
  • Number of effects: 16
  • Effect size: -0.33

Meta-Analyses

Meta-Analyses
Journal Title Author First Author's Country Article Name Year Published Variable Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Effect Size
The Journal of Psychology Paolucci & Violato Canada A Meta-Analysis of the Published Research on the Affective, Cognitive, and Behavioral Effects of Corporal Punishment 2004 Corporal Punishment on achievement 16 11,428 16 -0.33
TOTAL/AVERAGE 16 11,428 16 -0.33

Confidence

The Confidence is the average of these four measures, each divided into five approximately equal groups and assigned a value from 1 to 5 based on the following criteria:

  • Number of Meta-analyses
    • 1 = 1
    • 2 = 2–3
    • 3 = 4–6
    • 4 = 7–9
    • 5 = 10+
  • Number of Studies
    • 1 = 1–10
    • 2 = 11–50
    • 3 = 51–200
    • 4 = 201–400
    • 5 = 400+
  • Number of Students
    • 1 = 1–2,500
    • 2 = 2,501–10,000
    • 3 = 10,000–20,000
    • 4 = 20,000–100,000
    • 5 = 100,001+
  • Number of Effects
    • 1 = 1–100
    • 2 = 101–300
    • 3 = 301–600
    • 4 = 601–1,200
    • 5 = 1,200+
Confidences
Number of Meta-Analyses Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Overall Confidence
Confidence Factor 1 2 3 1 2
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