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Version 1.2 – Updated June 2023

Corporal punishment in the home


  • Influence: Corporal punishment in the home
  • Domain: Home
  • Sub-Domain: Home environment
  • Potential to Accelerate Student Achievement: Likely to have a negative impact
  • Influence Definition: The use of physical punishment in the home, such as spanking or hitting with objects.


  • Number of meta-analyses: 1
  • Number of studies: 16
  • Number of students: 11,428
  • Number of effects: 16
  • Weighted mean effect size: -0.33
  • Robustness index: 1


Journal Title Author First Author's Country Article Name Year Published Variable Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Effect Size
The Journal of Psychology Paolucci & Violato Canada A Meta-Analysis of the Published Research on the Affective, Cognitive, and Behavioral Effects of Corporal Punishment 2004 Corporal Punishment on achievement 16 11,428 16 -0.33
TOTAL/AVERAGE 16 11,428 16 -0.33
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