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Version 1.2 – Updated June 2023

Cooperative learning


  • Influence: Cooperative learning
  • Domain: Teaching Strategies
  • Sub-Domain: Instructional strategies
  • Potential to Accelerate Student Achievement: Potential to accelerate
  • Influence Definition: A pedagogical strategy through which two or more learners collaborate to achieve a common goal. Typically, cooperative learning programs seek to foster positive interdependence through face-to-face interactions, to hold individual group members accountable for the collective project, and to develop interpersonal skills among learners. Cooperative learning programs aim to enable learners to engage in more complex subject matter than students would typically be able to master, and such an approach has been recommended for both gifted and remedial learners.


  • Number of meta-analyses: 37
  • Number of studies: 1,376
  • Number of students: 42,188
  • Number of effects: 2,258
  • Weighted mean effect size: 0.53
  • Robustness index: 5


Journal Title Author First Author's Country Article Name Year Published Variable Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Effect Size
Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology Ayaz & Sekerci Turkey The Effects of the Constructivist Learning Approach on Student's Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis Study. 2015 Constructivist teaching 53 3,271 53 1.16
Psychological Bulletin Johnson, Maruyama, Johnson, Nelson, & Skon USA Effects of Cooperative, Competitive, and Individualistic Goal Structures on Achievement: A Meta-Analysis 1981 Cooperative learning 122 0 183 0.73
Dissertation Rolhelser-Bennett USA Four models of teaching: a meta-analysis of student outcomes 1987 Cooperative learning 23 4,002 78 0.48
Special Education Jung & Shin Korea Effects of Cooperative Learning Studies on Students with Disability in Korea : A Meta-Analysis Using R. Special Education 2016 Cooperative learning 13 0 13 1.07
Journal of chemical education Warfa USA Using cooperative learning to teach chemistry: A meta-analytic review.  2016 Cooperative learning in chemistry 25 3,985 25 0.68
Al-Jabar: Jurnal Pendidikan Matematika Setiana Indonesia Relationship between Cooperative learning method and Students' Mathematics Learning Achievement: A Meta-Analysis Correlation.  2020 Cooperative learning 16 805 16 0.15
Research Education Development Research Baomin & Lingling China A study on the impact of cooperative learning on student effectiveness. 2021 Cooperative learning 57 0 57 0.59
Curriculum Assessment: The Journal of Curriculum and Evaluation Park Korea Meta-analysis of the academic performance effects of co-op learning. 2009 Cooperative learning 272 0 272 0.43
European Journal of Education Studies Gürdogan-Bayir & Bozkurt Turkey Effectiveness of Cooperative Learning Approaches Used in the Course of Social Studies in Turkey: A Meta-Analysis Study.  2018 Cooperative learning 22 0 32 0.96
Study Assessment Research Li & Lingling Korea Study on the effect of cooperative learning on students' learning effectiveness. 2019 Cooperative learning 54 0 54 0.34
Active learning in higher education Swanson, McCulley, Osman, Scammacca-Lewis, & Solis USA The effect of team-based learning on content knowledge: A meta-analysis 2019 Team based learning 17 0 17 0.55
Dissertation Hall USA The effects of cooperative learning on achievement: a meta-analysis 1988 Cooperative learning 22 10,022 52 0.31
Special Education Research Jung & Shin Korea Effects of cooperative learning studies on students with disability in Korea: A meta-analysis using R. 2016 Cooperative learning 13 0 13 1.07
International Journal of Instruction Turgut & Gülsen-Turgut Turkey International Journal of Instruction 2018 Cooperative learning 47 0 59 0.84
Journal of Korean Association for Learner-centered Curriculum and Instruction Shin Korea A meta-analysis of the effects of cooperative learning program on elementary school students achievement.  2018 Cooperative learning 77 0 376 0.77
Education Academic Research Li & Gong China Study on the impact of cooperative learning on student's learning effectiveness. 2019 Cooperative learning 54 0 54 0.34
Chemical Education research practice Apugliese & Lewis USA Impact of instructional decisions on the effectiveness of cooperative learning in chemistry through meta-analysis 2017 Cooperative learning 26 0 26 0.70
Journal of Educational Psychology Stevens, Slavin, & Farnish New Zealand The effects of cooperative learning and direct instruction in reading comprehension strategies on main idea identification 1991 Cooperative learning 4 0 4 0.48
Dissertation Spuler USA A Meta-Analysis of the Relative Effectiveness of Two Cooperative Learning Models in Increasing Mathematics Achievement 1993 Cooperative learning in math 19 6,137 19 0.54
Dissertation Othman USA The effects of cooperative learning and traditional mathematics instruction in grades K-12: a meta-analysis of findings 1996 Cooperative learning in math 39 0 39 0.27
Eastern Educational Research Association Howard USA Meta-Analysis of Scripted Cooperative Learning 1996 Scripted cooperative learning 13 0 42 0.37
Report Suri Australia Comprehensive Review of Research on Cooperative Learning in Secondary Mathematics: A Pilot Study 1997 Cooperative learning in math 27 0 27 0.63
Journal of Chemical Education Bowen USA A Quantitative Literature Review of Cooperative Learning Effects on High School and College Chemistry Achievement 2000 Cooperative learning in high school chemistry 37 3,000 49 0.51
High Ability Studies Neber, Finsterwald & Urban Germany Cooperative learning with gifted and high-achieving students: a review and meta-analysis 2001 Cooperative learning with gifted 12 0 314 0.13
Review of Educational Research Dietrichson, Bog, Filges, & Jorgensen Denmark Academic interventions for elementary and middle school students with low socioeconomic status: A systematic review and meta-analysis.  2017 Cooperative learning 10 0 10 0.22
Journal of Human Sciences Tuncer & Dikmen Turkey The effect of cooperative learning on academic achievement: A meta-analysis on the relationship between the study group size and effect size 2017 Cooperative learning 6 0 6 0.52
Computers and Education Wecker & Fischer Germany Where is the evidence? A meta-analysis on the role of argumentation for the acquisition of domain-specific knowledge in computer-supported collaborative learning 2014 Argumentation in collaborative learning 12 1,235 17 0.39
Journal of Agricultural Education and Human Resource Development Gu Korea A meta-analysis on the effects of academic achievement in cooperative learning 2013 Cooperative learning 48 0 54 0.44
Dissertation Stoner USA The Effects of Cooperative Learning Strategies on Mathematics Achievement Among Middle-Grades Students: A Meta-Analysis 2004 Cooperative learning 22 6,455 22 0.14
Dissertation Romero USA Cooperative learning instruction and science achievement for secondary and early post-secondary students: A systematic review 2009 Cooperative learning 32 0 52 0.31
Journal of Educational Computing Research Susman USA Cooperative learning: A review of factors that increase the effectiveness of cooperative computer-based instruction. 1998 Cooperative learning via ICT 23 0 23 0.25
Dissertation Igel USA The effect of cooperative learning instruction on K-12 student learning: A meta-analysis of quantitative studies from 1998-2009 2010 Cooperative learning 20 2,412 20 0.44
Learning Disabilities Research & Practice McMaster & Fuchs USA Effects of cooperative learning on the academic achievement of students with learning disabilities: An update of Tateyama-Sniezek's review 2002 Cooperative learning 15 864 49 0.30
Cypriot Journal of Educational Sciences Nunnery, Chappell & Arnold UK A meta-analysis of a cooperative learning models effects on student achievement in mathematics 2013 Cooperative learning in math 15 0 15 0.16
Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness Puzio & Colby USA Cooperative learning and literacy: A meta-analytic review. 2013 Cooperative learning 18 0 29 0.16
Educational Research Review Kyndt, Raes, Lismont, Timmers, Cascallar, & Dochy Belgium A meta-analysis of the effects of face-to-face cooperative learning. Do recent studies falsify or verify earlier findings? 2013 Cooperative learning 65 0 51 0.54
Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice Capar & Tarim Turkey Efficacy of the Cooperative Learning Method on Mathematics Achievement and Attitude: A Meta-Analysis Research 2015 Cooperative learning in math 26 0 36 0.59
TOTAL/AVERAGE 1,376 42,188 2,258 0.50
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