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Version 1.2 – Updated June 2023



  • Influence: Boredom
  • Domain: Student
  • Sub-Domain: Emotions
  • Potential to Accelerate Student Achievement: Likely to have a negative impact
  • Influence Definition: Boredom relates to under-stimulation or a deficit in attention—often the result of a student's belief in the irrelevance of the subject at hand. When surveyed, however, students often cite proximate causes of boredom (such as an over-use of PowerPoint slides; tasks of low challenge; or when asked to remain passive and listen to others, especially, the talk and talk). Students often cope with boredom by daydreaming, texting, or turning to social media.


  • Number of meta-analyses: 4
  • Number of studies: 89
  • Number of students: 48,643
  • Number of effects: 139
  • Weighted mean effect size: -0.46
  • Robustness index: 3


Journal Title Author First Author's Country Article Name Year Published Variable Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Effect Size
Educational Psychology Review Tze, Daniels, & Klassen Canada Evaluating the relationship between boredom and academic outcomes: a meta-analysis 2016 Boredom on achievement 29 19,052 29 -0.49
Learning and Instruction Loderer, Pekrun, & Lester Germany Beyond cold technology: A systematic review and meta-analysis on emotions in technology-based learning environments.  2020 Boredom 8 1,181 14 -0.43
Conference paper Trimble, Patall, & Steingut USA Exploring the Boundary Conditions of the Harmful Associations Between Academic Boredom, Performance, and Effort: A Meta-Analysis and a Primary Study. 2007 Boredom on achievement 27 0 30 -0.45
Educational Psychology Review Camacho-Morles, Slemp, Pekrun, Loderer, Hou, & Oades Australia Activity achievement emotions and academic performance: A meta-analysis. 2021 Frustration 25 28,410 66 -0.45
TOTAL/AVERAGE 89 48,643 139 -0.45
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