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Version 1.1 – Updated August 2021

Audiovisual methods

Overview

  • Influence: Audiovisual methods
  • Domain: Technology, School, and Out-of-School Strategies
  • Sub-Domain: Technology
  • Potential to Accelerate Student Achievement: Likely to have positive impact
  • Influence Definition: Technologies projecting sound and image are often used in classrooms as a means of communicating information to students, and their advocates suggest that such technologies enhance the ability of students to retain information in their long-term memories. More recently, however, some scholars have expressed concern that many students (especially second-language learners) struggle to process information transmitted through multiple forms of media simultaneously. Others have suggested that these technologies can stymie the productive, pedagogical exchange between student and teacher by turning all attention to the technology itself.

Evidence

  • Number of meta-analyses: 8
  • Number of studies: 452
  • Number of students: 5,135
  • Number of effects: 281
  • Effect size: 0.36

Meta-Analyses

Meta-Analyses
Journal Title Author First Author's Country Article Name Year Published Variable Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Effect Size
Research in Higher Education Kulik, Kulik & Cohen USA Research on audio-tutorial instruction: A meta-analysis of comparative studies 1979 Audio-based teaching 42 0 42 0.20
ECTJ Cohen, Ebeling, & Kulik USA A meta-analysis of outcome studies of visual-based instruction 1981 Visual based instruction 65 0 65 0.15
Journal of Research in Science Teaching Willett, Yamashita & Anderson USA A Meta-Analysis of Instructional Systems Applied in Science Teaching 1983 Visual aids in science 130 0 100 0.02
Learning and Instruction Ginns Australia Meta-analysis of the modality effect 2005 Text presented in auditory rather than visual format 43 0 0 0.72
Learning and Instruction Ginns Australia Meta-analysis of the modality effect 2006 Spatial & temporal contiguity 50 2,375 50 0.85
Educational Technology in Japanese Schools. Educ. Technol. Res. Schwalb, Schwalb, & Azuma USA Educational Technology in the Japanese Schools A Meta-Analysis of Findings 1986 Audio-based teaching in Japan 104 0 6 0.09
Perceptual and Motor Skills Blanchard, Stock & Marshall USA Meta-Analysis of Research on a Multimedia Elementary School Curriculum Using Personal and Video-Game Computers 1999 Multi medium using personal and video-game computers 10 2,760 10 0.16
International Journal of Instructional Media Baker & Dwyer USA A meta-analytic assessment of the effect of visualized instruction 2000 Use of visual aids in learning 8 0 8 0.71
TOTAL/AVERAGE 452 5,135 281 0.36

Confidence

The Confidence is the average of these four measures, each divided into five approximately equal groups and assigned a value from 1 to 5 based on the following criteria:

  • Number of Meta-analyses
    • 1 = 1
    • 2 = 2–3
    • 3 = 4–6
    • 4 = 7–9
    • 5 = 10+
  • Number of Studies
    • 1 = 1–10
    • 2 = 11–50
    • 3 = 51–200
    • 4 = 201–400
    • 5 = 400+
  • Number of Students
    • 1 = 1–2,500
    • 2 = 2,501–10,000
    • 3 = 10,000–20,000
    • 4 = 20,000–100,000
    • 5 = 100,001+
  • Number of Effects
    • 1 = 1–100
    • 2 = 101–300
    • 3 = 301–600
    • 4 = 601–1,200
    • 5 = 1,200+
Confidences
Number of Meta-Analyses Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Overall Confidence
Confidence Factor 4 5 2 2 3
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