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Version 1.1 – Updated August 2021

Anxiety

Overview

  • Influence: Anxiety
  • Domain: Student
  • Sub-Domain: Beliefs, attitudes, and dispositions
  • Potential to Accelerate Student Achievement: Likely to have a negative impact
  • Influence Definition: An emotional state or trait that is variably related to academic performance, potentially influencing that performance positively or negatively. The most critical aspect is the coping strategies that children can be taught to deal with anxiety.

Evidence

  • Number of meta-analyses: 14
  • Number of studies: 1,029
  • Number of students: 639,201
  • Number of effects: 4,305
  • Effect size: -0.36

Meta-Analyses

Meta-Analyses
Journal Title Author First Author's Country Article Name Year Published Variable Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Effect Size
Review of Educational Research Hembree USA Correlates, Causes, Effects, and Treatment of Test Anxiety 1988 Test anxiety 46 28,276 176 -0.22
The Modern Language Journal Zhang USA Foreign Language Anxiety and Foreign Language Performance: A Meta-Analysis. 2019 Reducing anxiety to learn foreign language 46 10,228 55 0.72
Australian Journal of Psychology Harris USA An examination of the relationship between anxiety and performance on prospective and retrospective memory tasks 1987 Anxiety on performance 70 0 70 -0.35
Anxiety Research Seipp Germany Anxiety and academic performance: A meta-analysis of findings 1991 Anxiety on achievement 26 36,626 156 -0.43
Communication Education Bourhis & Allen USA Meta-analysis of the relationship between communication apprehension and cognitive performance 1992 Communication apprehension 23 0 728 -0.37
Unpublished thesis Taylor Canada Relationship between mathematics anxiety and achievement in mathematics: A meta-analysis. 1995 Anxiety in math 25 22,189 47 -0.31
Pegem Journal of Education and Instruction Sad, Kis, Demir, & Ozer Turkey Meta-analysis of the relationship between mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement 2015 Math anxiety and math achievement 11 8,327 11 -0.85
The Factors Effecting Student Achievement Erzen Turkey The Effect of Anxiety on Student Achievement 2017 Anxiety 151 115,086 151 -0.58
Unpublished thesis Fitzgerald USA The relationship between anxiety and statistics achievement: A meta-analysis. 1997 Anxiety to statistics 27 0 82 -0.28
Journal for Research in Mathematics Education Ma Canada A meta-analysis of the relationship between anxiety toward mathematics and achievement in mathematics 1999 Anxiety towards math and achievement 26 18,279 37 -0.56
Journal of School Health Wang, Xu, Wang China Analysis of meta-analysis of the factors influencing the anxiety of the examination of middle school students in China. 2014 Test anxiety 29 14,749 29 -0.29
Psychological Bulletin Barroso, Ganley, McGraw, Geer, Hart, Daucourt USA A meta-analysis of the relation between math anxiety and math achievement 2020 Math anxiety and math achievement 223 385,441 747 -0.58
Review of Educational Research Namkang, Peng, & Lin USA The relation between mathematics anxiety and mathematics performance among school-aged students: A meta-analysis. 2019 Test anxiety 131 0 478 -0.72
Korean Journal of Educational Psychology Bak & Im Korea A meta-analysis of test anxiety with related variables 2010 Test anxiety 195 0 1,538 -0.24
TOTAL/AVERAGE 1,029 639,201 4,305 -0.36

Confidence

The Confidence is the average of these four measures, each divided into five approximately equal groups and assigned a value from 1 to 5 based on the following criteria:

  • Number of Meta-analyses
    • 1 = 1
    • 2 = 2–3
    • 3 = 4–6
    • 4 = 7–9
    • 5 = 10+
  • Number of Studies
    • 1 = 1–10
    • 2 = 11–50
    • 3 = 51–200
    • 4 = 201–400
    • 5 = 400+
  • Number of Students
    • 1 = 1–2,500
    • 2 = 2,501–10,000
    • 3 = 10,000–20,000
    • 4 = 20,000–100,000
    • 5 = 100,001+
  • Number of Effects
    • 1 = 1–100
    • 2 = 101–300
    • 3 = 301–600
    • 4 = 601–1,200
    • 5 = 1,200+
Confidences
Number of Meta-Analyses Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Overall Confidence
Confidence Factor 5 5 5 5 5
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