"
Skip to Content
Version 1.1 – Updated August 2021

After-school programs

Overview

  • Influence: After-school programs
  • Domain: Technology, School, and Out-of-School Strategies
  • Sub-Domain: Out-of-school
  • Potential to Accelerate Student Achievement: Likely to have positive impact
  • Influence Definition: After-school programs have been created to solve three social problems: to prevent students from spending long periods of time home alone after school; to provide students struggling academically with more time to learn important elements of the curriculum; and to reduce crime and victimhood during after-school hours. The National Household Education Survey Program (2006) reported that 20 percent of U.S. students in Grades K-8 attended an after-school program, and studies have demonstrated that after-school programs focused on reading and mathematics have improved attendees’ academic performance in those areas.

Evidence

  • Number of meta-analyses: 7
  • Number of studies: 224
  • Number of students: 40,745
  • Number of effects: 324
  • Effect size: 0.21

Meta-Analyses

Meta-Analyses
Journal Title Author First Author's Country Article Name Year Published Variable Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Effect Size
Unpublished Thesis Crawford USA Meta-Analysis of the Impact of After-School Programs on Students Reading and Mathematics Performance 2011 After school programs 23 40,745 23 0.40
American Journal of Evaluation Scott-Little, Hamann, & Jurs USA Evaluations of After-School Programs: A Meta-Evaluation of Methodologies and Narrative Synthesis of Findings 2002 After school care programs 6 0 6 0.18
American Journal of Community Psychology Durlak, Weissberg, & Pachan USA A meta-analysis of after-school programs that seek to promote personal and social skills in children and adolescents 2010 After school care programs 45 0 45 0.21
Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning Durlak, Weisberg, & Casel USA The Impact of After-School Programs that Promote Personal and Social Skills 2007 After school programs 73 0 45 0.13
International Review of Education Shulruf New Zealand Do extra-curricular activities in schools improve educational outcomes? A critical review and meta-analysis of the literature. 2011 Extra curricula activities 29 0 148 0.19
American Journal of Evaluation Scott-Little, Hamann, & Jurs USA Evaluations of After-School Programs: A Meta-Evaluation of Methodologies and Narrative Synthesis of Findings 2002 After school programs 4 0 13 0.19
Paper: The Society for Social Work and Research Peters, Maynard, Vaughn & Sarteschi USA Are After-School Programs Effective? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of After-School Programs 2014 After school care programs 44 0 44 0.17
TOTAL/AVERAGE 224 40,745 324 0.21

Confidence

The Confidence is the average of these four measures, each divided into five approximately equal groups and assigned a value from 1 to 5 based on the following criteria:

  • Number of Meta-analyses
    • 1 = 1
    • 2 = 2–3
    • 3 = 4–6
    • 4 = 7–9
    • 5 = 10+
  • Number of Studies
    • 1 = 1–10
    • 2 = 11–50
    • 3 = 51–200
    • 4 = 201–400
    • 5 = 400+
  • Number of Students
    • 1 = 1–2,500
    • 2 = 2,501–10,000
    • 3 = 10,000–20,000
    • 4 = 20,000–100,000
    • 5 = 100,001+
  • Number of Effects
    • 1 = 1–100
    • 2 = 101–300
    • 3 = 301–600
    • 4 = 601–1,200
    • 5 = 1,200+
Confidences
Number of Meta-Analyses Number of Studies Number of Students Number of Effects Overall Confidence
Confidence Factor 4 4 4 3 4
Back to top